The Morphine and Codeine Equianalgesic’s
Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0501


Mini Review - (2017) Volume 6, Issue 3

The Morphine and Codeine Equianalgesic’s

Karabo Motswagae*
Rio Invetec, Box 801, Gaborone, Botswana
*Corresponding Author: Karabo Motswagae, Executive Assistant to Chief Executive Officer at Rio Invetec, Box 801, Gaborone, Botswana, Tel: +26776536549 Email:


In Equianalgesic’s treatment, Morphine and Codeine are the strongest metabolism inhibitors of Opioids, the Phenanthrenes display symptoms of none, as their counterparts of the Opioid class, Methadone of the Diphenylheptanes, Meperidine of the Phenylpiperidines, and related tolerant building drugs in that nomenclature. With acute to chronic conditions, the withdrawal effects of the symptomatic opioids are of concern, and forth, solution may be the use of Phenanthrenes as opioid treatment. In addition, prevention of side-effects in postmedication and withdrawal effects in recovery.

The Phenanthrenes compose chemical make-ups thought of no irritation due to the benzene ring formation, regarding the circulatory movement of the organic compound in the bodily fluid, and considering soluble properties comprised of. The dissolution of compounds create irritation of no such to the circulatory system, however, in contrast, mixture causes irritation to the folded tissue with issue in diffusion through the epithelial cell, due to the structure and the size of the opposing. Surprisingly, in comparison, soluble reactions with water allow diffusion to take place and acidification later in the kidney, which causes drainage of the waste product, hence, prevention of hepatic impairment. Insofar, renal impairments are avoided as well, due to the ionic gradient formed hormonally, and dissolving of Phenanthrenes to ions, thus allowing complete diffusion through the liver.

To conclude, hepatic impairments and renal complications are prevented in transit of treatment due to chemical properties of the organic and inorganic compounds and the characteristics realized. Treatment of no symptoms and withdrawals of none after-effect should be experienced with future recovery of no tolerance and utter completeness.


Keywords: Equianalgesic’s treatment; Opioid treatment; Hepatic impairments; Psychotic issues


Motivation and objectives

The motivation behind inorganic and organic chemistry is leading the frontiers of medical discoveries, that drive innovation to create medicinal application in diagnosis of speci ic diseases, to heal, to recover, and to progress patients in full health, without issue of symptomatic withdrawal, nor supplementary medication in substitution. The practice of tapering-off indicates addiction built in the drug prescribed, and awareness raises complication of future habits developed in the case of tolerant increment doses. An indication of resistance to the drug in the body presents desire of higher dose. The objective is to prevent the symptomatic effect, and halt withdrawal from occurring, therefore, full recovery and complete health.


Contributions to this theory come from my knowledge of science and the methodology of practical application to knowledge of what is learnt right now, and the contribution that will play in academic documentation. This theory came purely from what I knew, in the wish that my contribution may be greatly recorded and in luential to the times following.

Statement of originality

The originality of this theory is completely authentic from deduction of chemical responses in the body to conclusions of chemical stimulus. The conclusions in this theory come from perception of what is believed to be right and accurate, lawful in reference to every material used, and original in concept from invention to medical theory.


Publications made regarding Science are articles on epistemology and the infinite regress of scientific belief, in collaboration with the philosophy of scientific scholars that have changed the world of academic, together with the pupil, the article titled, "Tale of Genius." The second article, "Physical Direction," was modern with beliefs of today's societal organization, the scientific community and the groups associated, regarding what is known and what may be. The third publish was “Universal Energy Discovery, “regarding dark energy and universal acceleration, non-seen or measurable, observed only by the Black Particle.

Background Theory


Background theory is frameworks made by Scientists great in their work and publish, from Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Hawking. Their treaties of magnificent constitution to the church and academic institutions, following literature of ethics to morality and judgement. Political systems combined and global structures of knowledge set the background to chemistry, chemical sciences, and chemical engineering. To formulate mind-set made in concepts of modern understanding in medical reality (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Phenanthrene Molecular Model (ChemSpider, 2017).


As seen above, the molecular formula allows complete absorption of the body from chemical analysis of the benzene ring, within the blood stream as it is soluble in water with hydrogenation, therefore numbing the blood cell by forming a hydroxide, and preventing respiration with deprivation of oxygen. Hence, creating paralyses of the cell and sedation within the process of oxygen blood transfer, thus allowing no cells to receive oxygen combined with the sedative effect paralyzing the nervous system, plus allowing no reception in the brain of pain, therefore managing pain relief. The advantage being complete absorption and dissolution of the compound, therefore allowing diffusion in-between the membrane to take place and urination through uric acid formation followed by urination, in addition, prevention of renal and hepatic impairments (Figure 2).


Figure 2: Benzomorphan Molecular Model (ChemSpider, 2017).

The nitrogen atom within the compound is of a large atomic number, therefore, as of a large atom, forms part of the molecule which hinders diffusion through membranes of epithelial cells such as microvilli, hence, leading to renal complication of the kidney tissue, and hepatic impairments of acidification in the liver. The following medication fall under Benzomorphan, Pentazocine, Diphenoxylate and Loperamide (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Phenylpiperidine Molecular Model (ChemSpider, 2017).

As seen above for the second time, the nitrogen atom composes the molecular compound and then again, poses a big problem to renal and hepatic impairment, therefore arises future issue and substitution of tolerant building drugs. The following are Phenylpiperidine, Meperidine, Fentanyl, Sufentanil and Remifentanil (Figure 4).


Figure 4: Diphenylheptane Molecular Model (ChemSpider, 2017).

From above, the deduction of insolubility in the molecule from the chemical structure creates complication in absorption through dissociation, therefore in diffusion, causing future issue. Ability of ionization is everything as the reaction allows smaller, yet more responsive chemicals to the body in reaction such as hydroxide, forth coming management of pain and relief [1].


Summary of achievements

The achievement the thesis accomplished was recognition in the Pharmaceutical Chemistry conference. Promised publication with success as well, in the certification of the International Committee, provided with Allied Journals alliance.


The application of Morphine and Codeine as prescription of pain is pedestal to sedative and numbing drugs as no symptoms are experienced and no withdrawals are realized. In modest conclusion, it may be safe to say the Phenanthrenes build no tolerance of resistance to the body, thereby allowing equal dosage of the same prescription timely.

Future work

Future work planned is harvesting and extraction of Morphine and Codeine through Poppy plants of the Opium specie, specifically, the Papaveraceae family, falling into the Papaveroideae subfamily, and finally classifying under the Papaver genera, using the Papaver Somniferous species.


Citation: Motswagae K (2017) The Morphine and Codeine Equianalgesic’s. Biochem Pharmacol 6: 231.

Copyright: © 2017 Motswagae K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.