The Election System in India
Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs

Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs
Open Access

ISSN: 2332-0761

Mini Review - (2019) Volume 7, Issue 1

The Election System in India

Gayatri Sunkad*
Department of Political Science, Shri Kalidas Degree College, Badami, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding Author: Gayatri Sunkad, Department of Political Science, Shri Kalidas Degree College, Badami, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India, Tel: 7795155352 Email:


The Election system in India is a basic foundation for our successful democracy. The Election Commission in India is a statutory body which is having the responsibility of conducting elections in state level as in central elections. The election system is not only seen in India, it can be seen in all countries of the world. The election system also decides the successful running of the government also. Even though, it is a traditional system in India, still it is has applied many changes it itself, and now it is a most developed progressive system in India.
The Election system in India, has many features like adult franchise, reservation in constituencies, nomination system etc. Our election system in India is very strong administrative machinery which conducts elections in periodic wise.

Keywords: The Election system; Nomination; Candidates; Constituencies; Democracy; Reservation


India is a constitutional democracy, which is having a parliamentary system of government. These elections deals with the elections relating to all state assemblies, union territories, president and as well as vice president elections [1]. According to the people representative act of 1950, the electoral were created to choose representatives from various constituencies to elect the representatives who are having the power to make the making the government and successful running the administration [2].

Indian Election System - The Method of Running the Operation

Elections in India are events involving political mobilization and organizational complexity on an amazing scale. In the 2004 election to Lok Sabha there were 1351 candidates from 6 National parties, 801 candidates from 36 State parties, 898 candidates from officially recognized parties and 2385 Independent candidates [3]. A total number of 38,99,48,330 people voted out of total electorate size of 67,14,87,930. The Election Commission employed almost 4 million people to run the election. A vast number of civilian police and security forces were deployed to ensure that the elections were carried out peacefully [4,5].

Constituencies’ and Reservation of Seats

In India, the constituencies were distributed according to population as well as the geographic conditions. Some of the constituencies are reserved for Scheduled caste and also Scheduled Tribe candidates. Even in the slopes of the mountain, in hilly areas, the constituencies are distributed [6].

There are total 545 seats are in Lok Sabha, in which, 543 are elected from the constituencies and 2 are the reserved for Anglo- Indian seats are nominated from president.

The Objectives

The objective of the studying the election system in India is analyzing the democracy system in India as well as to studying the election system in India. By this we can collect a lot of data about this which is to make improvements in the election system which is the basic foundation for the any successful democracy system.


The studying election system is having its own concept. Even though it is very, interesting concept which is also includes a number of data also. A number of data shows the changes in the election system in India [7].

The expenses which is done at the time of Lok Sabha and various state assemblies of elections

There are tight legal limits on the amount of money a candidate can spend during the election campaign. Since December 1997, in most Lok Sabha constituencies the limit was Rs 15,00,000/-, although in some States the limit is Rs 6,00,000/- (for Vidhan Sabha elections the highest limit is Rs 6,00,000/-, the lowest Rs 3,00,000/-). Recent amendment in October 2003 has increased these limits. For Lok Sabha seats in bigger states, it is now Rs 25,00,000. In other states and Union Territories, it varies between Rs 10,00,000 to Rs 25,00,000. Similarly, for Assembly seats, in bigger states, it is now Rs 10,00,000, while in other states and Union Territories, it varies between Rs 5,00,000 to Rs 10,00,000. Although supporters of a candidate can spend as much as they like to help out with a campaign, they have to get written permission of the candidate, and various parties are allowed to spend as much money on campaigns as they want, recent Supreme Court judgments have said that, unless a political party can specifically account for money spent during the campaign, it will consider any activities as being funded by the candidates and counting towards their election expenses [8-13]. The accountability imposed on the candidates and parties has curtailed some of the more extravagant campaigning that was previously a part of Indian elections.

The symbols given from the election system in India

The Election Commission of India five different symbols to various political parties as well as independent candidates. There is also reason for this. Most of the common people in India are illiterate, so to identify the various candidates, as well as political parties, the political parties and independent candidates are given various symbols from the election commission. There are more than 15 political parties are registered under the election commission [14-16].

The age limit to contest in the parliament elections and various state assemblies

The constitution has prescribed the maximum age limit to contest in Lok Sabha elections is 25 years and the Rajya Sabha elections is 30 years. In various assemblies, the maximum age limit for the legislative assembly is 25 years and legislative council is 30 years.

Issuing of voting identity card to all citizens of India

In 1993, for the first time, the Election Commission of India had arranged of issuing the identity card to all the citizens to arrange the efficient and corrupt election system in India. To avoid the duplicate voting and to prevent the booth capturing system, the strict vigilance is also arranged [17].

Now the electronic voting machines are also introduced to check the mal practice in election system

Appointment of election observers

The election observers are appointed by election commission to check the expenditure made by the each candidate at the time of election [18].

By using this measure, the election commission tries to control the expenditure of election and also tries to prevent the distribution of money to illiterate voters to purchase the votes.

The Petitions

Candidate can file an election petition if he or she thinks there has been malpractice during the election. An election petition is not an ordinary civil suit, but treated as a contest in which the whole constituency is involved [19]. Election petitions are tried by the High Court of the State involved, and if upheld can even lead to the restaging of the election in that constituency [20]. It is made to provide the justice to every candidate who thinks that he can get better justice through the judicial system.

Declaration of Votes and Declaration of Winner

Under the supervision of retuning officers, the counting is held and the name of candidate is declared, who is gaining the highest number of votes, and also the name of the winner is declared.

The certificate of winning is distributed to the winner candidate from the election commission.


The Election System in India, is the statutory commission established, under the constitution, is making improvements, from time to time, to and is also famous for its efficient administration. The Election commission is having One chief election commissioner, two other election commissioners, who are appointed by president of India, is having the responsibility of conducting elections in the central level. The State election commission.

Is having the responsibility of conducting elections at state level and also in base level.

The Election system in India is a biggest task which is conducting for every five years and is smooth functioning process due to the effort of election commission of India.

Totally in conclusion, we can say that having the second biggest democracy in India, India is also having the biggest election system in India. Due to this, only we are having the sweet fruits of democratic system in India.


  2. Electorial System India or Election System in India: Basic Civil Service.
  3. Electorial System India or Election System in India: Basic Civil Service.
  4. Indian Elections - Scale of Operation, Constituencies & Reservation of Seats. Reservation of Seats.
  5. The Caravan (2017) Why India Needs to Change Its Electoral Voting System.
Citation: Sunkad G (2019) The Election System in India. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 7: 352.

Copyright: © 2019 Sunkad G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.