Suggestion and Developing an Effective Mechanism for Faster Response of Immune Cells
Rheumatology: Current Research

Rheumatology: Current Research
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-1149 (Printed)

Mini Review - (2021)

Suggestion and Developing an Effective Mechanism for Faster Response of Immune Cells

Alireza Heidari1*, Elena Locci2 and Silvia Raymond3
*Correspondence: Alireza Heidari, Cancer Research Institute (CRI), California South University, California, USA, Email:

Author info »


This study revealed a novel mechanism including inhibition of this cell organelle, the lysosome, and dormancy. This opens the way to the potential use of lysosomes as a therapeutic target. Thousands of people around the world receive bone marrow transplants each year to help treat leukemia. Large dosages of chemotherapy are used quickly to kill cancer cells, but they also kill stem cells that are needed for healthy blood to reproduce. Stem cell transplants are used to regenerate a patient's healing blood supply, but finding a suitable donor can be difficult, especially in ethnically diverse communities where donor lists are limited. It may not be long or non-existent. Cord blood stem cells are of considerable value as an additional source of donors, but the number of stem cells is often too small for an adult recipient. Understanding how stem cells are activated and proliferated in a controlled manner can greatly benefit cord blood collection. The ability to control stem cell activation may also be useful in cases where stem cells are underactive due to disease, inflammation, or drug treatment, and may help to maintain sleep. Learning how to maintain immune cells in the blood is essential. If this stem cell is not activated properly, it can have serious consequences for the blood system, as stem cells cannot regenerate. You have to do everything you can, to keep this cell asleep, and one way is to block the signals from its surface. It can also be used to help fully understand leukemia stem cells, which mimic normal stem cells and can sometimes sleep through treatment. Now it is interesting to take an interest in these leukemic stem cells and see how this mechanism is regulated. We can notice the differences and use them to fix them.


Cancer; Cells; Tissues; Tumors; Prevention; Prognosis; Diagnosis


It is well known that severe viral infections and cancer disrupt the immune system, including T cells, a process known as "immune fatigue". Overcoming immunodeficiency is a key goal in developing new treatments against cancer or serious viral infections. Previously, the team discovered that, while some T cells lose function and wear out in a matter of days, others, called Tpex cells, can maintain their function for a long time. The knowledge that you have to overcome burnout and heal T cells is central to the immune system. Although immunotherapy works wonderfully, it only works for about 30% of people. By figuring out how the different distributions of T cells can work effectively in the long run, we can make immunotherapy more effective for more people.

Literature Review

In their latest paper in safety today, the team has now identified a mechanism that explains how Tpex cells are able to maintain a healthy state over the long term. Professor Callis said: "The discovery has the potential to improve the success rate of immunotherapy." We found that the activity of mTOR, a nutrient absorber that regulates energy delivery to cells, was decreased in Tpex cells compared with destroyed cells. This means:

• Tpex cells were able to reduce their activity to maintain their function longer.

• It’s like running slower in a marathon instead of running twice at full speed.

• This rapid movement of this system against the immune system is a balancing act.

You don't want to be disappointed if you don't get the right pitch, so invest in a good capo. You don't want to be left behind in the race. The next step is to find a mechanism that can do that. We found that Tpex cells were exposed to a greater amount of an immunosuppressive molecule, TGF β, at the onset of infection. This molecule primarily acts as a brake, reducing mTOR activity and thus the immune response. Interestingly, the researchers were able to use this discovery to improve the immune response to serious viral infections. When we treated mice early with an mTOR inhibitor, this led to a better immune response in later stages of infection. In addition, mice treated with mTOR inhibitors responded better to checkpoint inhibition, a widely used treatment in cancer patients. The crew will now test this mechanism in preclinical models of cancer [1].

When macrophages are activated by drugs, they produce inflammatory proteins. These in turn activate neutrophils, which carry out a toxic response. Pitt says, it helps limit the side effects of immunotherapy by manipulating neutrophils. The team confirmed this finding by studying the immune responses of mice whose cellular activity was modulated using genetic tools. They were able to identify a weakness that could be used to eliminate these side effects. In fact, neutrophils induce certain factors for the development of toxicity, including TNF α, which could be a therapeutic target. TNF α inhibitors are currently used to modulate the immune response in individuals with osteoarthritis and may be useful in cancer conditions to inhibit the toxic effects of neutrophils in immunotherapy [2-5]. Furthermore, suppressing neutrophils may be a more effective way of opposing cancer. In addition to triggering a toxic response, some of these cells also stimulate tumour growth. So, by controlling them, we can have a double beneficial effect: overcoming toxicity in healthy tissue and cancer cell growth.

Results and Discussion

Lung cancer in the early stages has no obvious or felt symptoms, and in the later stages it often causes coughing, wheezing, and chest pain. But other, less well-known symptoms can show up in parts of your body that you wouldn't expect, especially since it's not just lung cancer. This report shows some of the following signs and symptoms:

• The presence of fat around the fingers and certain lung tumors that produce hormone-like chemicals in the body,

• Some of which cause more blood and fluid to be pumped into the tissues around the fingertips and around the fingers, making them appear thicker or fatter than usual.

• In this case, the skin around the nail looks shiny, or the nail may become more curved than usual when viewed from the side.

• Although these symptoms are uncommon, they are strongly associated with lung cancer, with about 80% of lung cancer patients experiencing swelling of the fingers.

Faster response of immune cells

Hypercalcemia about 20% of cancer patients have high calcium levels, a condition called hypercalcemia, which can cause abdominal pain with nausea or constipation, loss of appetite, and intense thirst. Cancer causes a hormone-like chemical produced by some tumour to damage the kidneys, causing constipation and nausea [6].

Mental health issues in a Danish study, people with mental health problems ranging from stress to depression and dementia a year earlier were more likely to develop lung cancer. It can be the result of cancer affecting the immune system or hormones. High calcium levels linked to cancer can also cause confusion, misguided thinking, and depression. Back or shoulder pain, a pancreatic tumour is a type of lung cancer that develops in the upper part of the lungs and spreads to the ribs, vertebrae, nerves, and blood vessels. As these tumors grow, they rarely affect the respiratory system and are more likely to cause pain in the shoulders, upper back and arms.

Fatigue, a low red blood cell count, or anemia, is a very common effect of lung cancer. Anemia can make patients tired because their body tissues don't get enough oxygen. In general, cancer cells need to be supplied with the nutrients they need for energy production throughout the day, which changes the patient's physical condition. Imbalance and stability lung cancer causes the immune system to attack the nervous system and can affect muscle function. Standing becomes more difficult than sitting, or the patient may feel unsteady. If the tumour is in the upper right side of the lung, it may be due to ischemia or stenosis of the superior vena cava (the large vein that carries blood from the head to the heart). Changes in body weight: some people with lung cancer develop Cushing's syndrome, in which cancer cells in the body produce a hormone called ACTH, which increases cortisol levels [7-10]. This leads to water retention and weight gain, which can be accompanied by bruises and drowsiness. On the other hand, hypocalcaemia and SIADH (a hormone problem affecting the kidneys) cause the patient to lose appetite, possibly starting to lose weight for no apparent reason. Eye problems pancreatic tumour can also affect the nerves in the eyes and parts of the face. This is called Horner's syndrome. Symptoms include a small pupil in one eye and a drooping eyelid in the other. The patient loses the ability to sweat on the same side of their face. Lung cancer, which activates the immune system against the nervous system, can manifest as a vision problem.

Male breast cancer: Lung cancer is a rare cause of breast swelling in men, but it cannot be completely ruled out. Lung cancer can disrupt a woman's hormonal balance and cause soft, swollen tissues in the breasts. Headache depending on its location, the tumour can compress the superior vena cava, making it difficult for blood to flow through, leading to headaches and high calcium levels, causing cluster headaches. Therefore, tests should be performed to detect any new, unusual headaches or to change the pattern of headaches.


Heart problems, hypercalcemia and anaemia can cause symptoms such as a fast or irregular heartbeat. If the heart problems are caused by hypercalcemia, they can become severe and the lung cancer patient may have a heart attack or go into a coma. Severe anaemia can also cause chest pain and shortness of breath. Swelling of the face, neck, or arms occurs when the superior vena cava is suffocated due to the pressure exerted by the cancerous tumor. Blood slowly drains from the upper body, causing swelling of the neck, arms, and medial face due to the accumulation of blood, waiting for excess liquid deportation. This can cause reddish-brown spots on the breasts.

Weakness and pain, when lung cancer spreads throughout the body, cells often travel with the bloodstream to the bones, forming new tumour or lesions. These tumour often damage bones, making them more fragile and painful. Patients may have a mineral imbalance, in addition to hypercalcemia or SIADH, leading to general weakness and body pain. If the cancer affects the nervous system, it can lead to muscle weakness that can cause problems with speaking or swallowing. Blood clots in patients with lung cancer are more prone to blood clots.


This study was supported by the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) Project of Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development, the National Natural Science Foundation of the United Sates, the International Joint Bio Spectroscopy Core Research Laboratory Program supported by the California South University (CSU), and the Key project supported by the American International Standards Institute (AISI), Irvine, California, USA.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there was no conflict of interests.


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Author Info

Alireza Heidari1*, Elena Locci2 and Silvia Raymond3
1Cancer Research Institute (CRI), California South University, California, USA
2Department of Medicine, California South University, California, USA
3Department of Cancer, California South University, California, USA

Citation: Heidari A, Locci E, Raymond S (2021) Suggestion and Developing an Effective Mechanism for Faster Response of Immune Cells. Rheumatology (Sunnyvale). S19: 003.

Received: 05-Nov-2021 Accepted: 19-Nov-2021 Published: 26-Nov-2021

Copyright: © 2021 Heidari A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.