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Short Communication - (2021)Volume 10, Issue 1
Compounds of nitrogen connected to a group are called as amides, they need a structure R–CO–NR′R″ and varies in properties with amines. Amines are organic compounds that contain nitrogen atoms with a lone pair. Basically, they're derived from ammonia (NH3) during which one or more atom is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, then they're referred to as alkyl amines and aryl amines respectively.
Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons then is trivalent with a lone pair. As per VSEPR theory, nitrogen present in amines is sp3 hybridized and thanks to the presence of lone pair, it's pyramidal rather than tetrahedral shape which may be a general structure for many sp3 hybridized molecules. Each of the three sp3 hybridized orbitals of nitrogen overlap with orbitals of hydrogen or carbon depending upon the configuration of amines. thanks to the presence of lone pair, the C-N-H angle in amines may be a smaller amount than 109 degrees which is a characteristic angle of tetrahedral geometry. The angle of amines is near about 108 degrees.
Occurrence of Amines
Naturally, amines occur in proteins, vitamins, hormones, etc. and that they also are prepared synthetically to form polymers, drugs, and dyes.
Uses of Amines
Amines have a widespread application in our daily lives. Some uses of amines are listed below: It is employed in water purification, medicine manufacturing and development of insecticides and pesticides. It is involved within the production of amino acids which is that the building block of proteins in living beings. many sorts of vitamins also are made by amines.Pain-relieving medicines like Morphine and Demerol which also are referred to as analgesics are made up of amines.
Basicity of Amines
pKa value for primary & secondary amines is about 38, which makes them a true week acid. Whereas if we take the pKb, it's about 4. This makes the amines far more basic than acidic. Thus, an solution of an amine strongly alkaline.
Reduction of Nitriles
We can get primary amines when nitriles are reduced with lithium aluminium hydride. This method is mainly used for the preparation of amines which contains one carbon atom more than the starting amine.
Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis
We can get primary amines easily by Gabriel synthesis. In this process, on the treatment of phthalimide with ethanoic potassium hydroxide, we get potassium salts of phthalimide. When this is further heated with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis then primary amine is produced. We cannot prepare aromatic primary amines because aryl halides do not undergo nucleophilic substitution with the anion which is formed by phthalimide.
imilar to ammonia, primary & secondary amines have protic hydrogens and thus they showcase a degree of acidity. Whereas tertiary amines haven't any protic hydrogen and thus don't possess a degree of acidity.
Citation: Sudha M (2020) Amines. Organic Chem Curr Res. 9:208.
Received: 07-Jan-2021 Accepted: 14-Jan-2021 Published: 20-Jan-2021
Copyright: Sudha M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.