Orthopaedic surgery, often known as orthopaedics, is a discipline of surgery that deals with musculoskeletal problems. Orthopaedic surgeons treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, cancers, and congenital problems with both surgical and nonsurgical methods. In 1741, Nicholas Andry created the term orthopédie, which comes from the Ancient Greek terms orthos ("correct," "straight") and ov paidion ("child"), and wrote Orthopédie (translated as Orthopdia: Or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children). Many advancements in orthopaedic surgery have come as a result of combat experiences. The injured were treated in Middle Ages battlefields with bandages drenched in horse blood, which dried to form a firm, albeit unclean, splint. The term orthopaedics originally referred to the treatment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children.
In 1741, Nicolas Andry, a medical professor at the University of Paris, used the phrase in the first textbook on the subject. To correct abnormalities in youngsters, he encouraged the use of exercise, manipulation, and splinting. While these concerns would be familiar to orthopedists today, he also mentioned 'excessive perspiration of the palms' and freckles in his book, which was aimed for parents. Surgical technique advancements in the 18th century, such as John Hunter's research on tendon mending and Percival Pott's work on spinal deformities, significantly increased the number of novel treatment options accessible.
In 1851, a Dutch military surgeon named Antonius Mathijsen devised the plaster of Paris cast. However, until the 1890s, orthopaedics was still primarily concerned with the repair of deformities in children. Percutaneous tenotomy was one of the earliest surgical procedures to be devised. Along with bracing and exercises, a tendon, originally the Achilles tendon, was severed to assist cure abnormalities. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, there was a lot of debate about whether or not orthopaedics should involve surgical operations at all. Hugh Owen Thomas, a Welsh surgeon, and his nephew, Robert Jones, were two individuals who contributed to the creation of modern orthopaedic surgery. [Number four] Thomas had an interest in orthopaedics and bone-setting at a young age, and after opening his own clinic, he expanded the discipline to include the treatment of fractures and other musculoskeletal issues.
Orthopedic surgeons in the United States normally have a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree after four years of undergraduate education and four years of medical school. Following that, these medical school graduates complete an orthopaedic surgery residency programme. A category orthopaedic surgery residency is a five-year programme. The competition for orthopaedic surgery residency training is fierce. In the United States, around 700 physicians complete orthopaedic residency training each year. Women make up roughly 10% of current orthopaedic surgery residents, whereas ethnic groups make up about 20%.
Citation: Mallick K (2021) Orthopedic Surgery: An Overview. J Biomed Eng & Med Dev. 6:165.
Received: 09-May-2021 Accepted: 16-May-2021 Published: 23-May-2021 , DOI: 10.35248/2475-7518.104.22.168
Copyright: © 2021 Mallick K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited