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Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Volume 5, Issue 5
Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence

Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence
Open Access

ISSN: 2329-6488

Editor Note - (2017) Volume 5, Issue 5

Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Volume 5, Issue 5

Steliana Rizeanu*
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Hyperion University of Bucharest, Romania
*Corresponding Author: Steliana Rizeanu, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Hyperion University of Bucharest, Romania

Editor Note

Alcoholism is a state or a condition, where a person is incapable of resisting his or her desire for alcohol and gets addicted to the same. Drug dependence is again another type of addiction where person becomes dependent on illegal drugs and unable to quit. Compulsive seeking and excessive use of these, despite its harmful consequences converts a habit into addiction. It is a chronic and relapsing brain disorder. The addicted person suffers withdrawal symptoms, while trying to quit or recover from this disease state. Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence aims at publishing most recent research and developments on all the aspects of alcoholism and drug dependence. Volume 5, Issue 5 of this journal presents interesting articles on types, screening, complications and treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction.

Among drugs, nicotine and alcohol are the most common type of addiction and are the highest consumed throughout the world. According to studies nicotine enhances the desire for the consumption of alcohol. These two are often co-abused. Tobacco smoking during adolescence increases the vulnerability of alcohol addiction in adulthood. Bianchi et al. [1], in their study have assessed the impact of nicotine exposure during adolescence, increases the vulnerability for alcohol addiction later in life. According to the study, exposure to nicotine during adolescence does not affect the desire for alcohol intake in adulthood. However, exposure of nicotine or alcohol during adolescence increases the desire for the same drug during adulthood. Studies also showed that pre exposure of nicotine during adulthood increases alcohol addiction during late adulthood.

Abuse of hallucinogens may cause a disorder known as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD). In such cases individuals suffer from visual pseudo hallucination for months or years. Ketamine is a medication, used generally as powerful anesthesia for pain relief and during operations. Abraham and Salzman [2] have reported a case study where a thirteen year old boy developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). At fifteen, his chronic pain was treated with two intravenous infusion of Ketamine. After six months, the boy started suffering from progressive onset of visual pseudo hallucination and hypersensitivity to sound and light. Even after prolonged medications, the perceptual symptoms and ketamine euphoria remained.

Alcoholism or AUD is a global problem and is the third leading cause of death throughout the world. Screening of these diseases is the major challenge in today’s preventive healthcare practices for the early detection of the risks of developing conditions like alcoholism. According to Stanciu et al. [3], diseases like alcoholism often go undiagnosed because despite the guidelines provided, only few use the screening tools. When these screening tools are utilized and proper medications are given, the guidelines providers seems to experience good experiences like patients tend to have longer stability and be sober, less legal problems are encountered and are able to engage themselves in medical and psychiatric care.

It is said that passive smoking is even more dangerous than active smoking. Use of cannabis is increasing day by day due to its huge cultivation and legislation becoming more lenient currently. Mostly these cannabis are smoked in a closed room with poor ventilation or in vehicles. Due to this, in addition to the primary smoke, second hand smoke is continuously inhaled and exhaled. This is called as secondary intoxication. Stanciu et al. [4] has reported in their study that, when second hand smoke occurs in poorly ventilated areas, nonusers may also inhale smoke which results in the absorption of cannabinoids. Therefore, detectable levels may be present in blood and urine. When screening is done, clinicians must be mindful of such non users, if the patient denies of using despite positive test result.

In another study, Stanciu et al. [5] has reported that, despite the rapid increase AUD, FDA approved treatment guidelines are mostly not prescribed or used. This indicates that maybe the prescribers are not comfortable or they do not have knowledge about it or maybe the FDA approved medications are costly. Psychiatrists should gain confidence in using FDA based medications in the treatment of AUD. In repeating mental disorders increased use of psychotropic could improve the efficiency of the treatment. Focused education about medication based treatment must be implemented.

In the western part of the world, the suicide rate of males is more than females. Russian experiences the highest gender gap in suicide rate in the world. According to researchers there is a close relationship between alcohol consumption and suicide attempt in Russia. Razvodovsky [6] conducted a study to analyze the association between different beverage consumption and gender difference in suicide rates. According to the author, high level of vodka consumption with binge drinking pattern may be a cause for the gender difference in suicidal rates. The heavy drinking of vodka is much more frequent in males than in female. There is no co-relation between wine and beer drinking and suicidal rates.

AUD is an illness that causes impairment which includes physiological, psychological or social dysfunction. Any of the above two are seen in alcoholism. Dordi and Purandare [7] made a comparative study to analyze life satisfaction, hope and personal growth initiative in between an alcoholic and an occasional drinker. Life satisfaction can be defined as a person’s life based on his or her self-selected standards. Hope is the positivity within an individual to achieve goals. Personal growth initiative is a desire of an individual to grow and develop in areas that are important for the individual. All these factors are observed to be higher in occasional drinker compared to alcoholics.

References

Citation: Rizeanu S (2017) Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence|Volume 5, Issue 5. J Alcohol Drug Depend 5: e139.

Copyright: © 2017 Rizeanu S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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