Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine

Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
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Research Article - (2021)Volume 9, Issue 3

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Wound Healing Activity of Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Husk Ash Extract in Mice

Uche Chidiebere*
*Correspondence: Uche Chidiebere, Department of Biology/ Microbiology, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria, Tel: +0589029662070346, Email:

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera(coconut) husk ash against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli)and their wound healing potential in experimental rats. The wound healing potential of the ethanolic extractointment of Cocos nucifera(coconut) husk ash was evaluated in albino rats using excision wound model. Eighteen ratswere divided into three groups of six each. Group 1 received no treatment (blank ointment base) which is thenegative control, Group II received treatment with 1% silver sulphidiazine and group III received treatment withcoconut husk ash extract. 1% silver sulphidiazine ointment was used as standard for the activity comparison. Woundhealing was monitored on day 4, 8, 12 and 16. Wound healing parameters such as percentage of wound contractionrate and epithelialization period were observed. Studies on the antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extract ofcoconut husk ash was conducted using agar well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration wasalso determined. The results showed that topical application of coconut husk ash extract incorporated into anointment base served to accelerate the wound healing process and specifically increased epithelialization in treatmentgroups compared to the other groups. The ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera(coconut) husk ash inhibited growth ofall test organisms though it was dose dependent. The minimum inhibitory concentration values obtained for thecoconut husk ash extract against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 8 mg/ml,8 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml respectively. The results obtained shows that the Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract has a good wound healing and antibacterial activity and may be useful in managing wounds.


Antibacterial activity; Clinic base setting; Diagnosis; Demographic and clinical characteristics; Wound healing


Wound healing is a natural process that enables tissue repair after an injury. To shorten its duration and minimize associated complications, wounds are treated with medications [1]. But, the prices of these orthodox medications are exorbitant and many wound contaminating bacterial are becoming increasingly resistant to their effects [2]. Currently there is a growing interest in the use of alternative wound dressing agents such as plant extracts Popular medicinal use of coconut husk fibre have been reported [3], hence the study was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial and wound healing activity of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract in mice.

Materials and Methods

Excision wounds were created and treated with ointments (10%w/w) prepared from Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract using petroleum jelly as a base. The normal (control) and test (standard) group were applied topically with petroleum jelly and 1% Silver sulphadiazine ointment respectively in the form of thin layer. The wound healing activities of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract ointment on excision wound was assessed by rates of wound contraction and epithelialization.

Antibacterial activity of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract was also determined on common wound isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Wounds are breaks in the skin (due to cuts, scrapes, or scratches) or injuries in other body tissues. They often happen due to trauma or due to an accident, but can also be caused due to surgery, or by sutures and stitches. A major problem with wounds is the risk of infections caused by microorganisms. Inhibition or killing of microorganisms is an essential component of the wound healing process and is generally achieved with antimicrobial agents (antibiotics). These can be applied to the wound (topical) or be given systemically (e.g., by oral administration). Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera), known in Malay as ‘kelapa’, belongs to the family of Palmae in Araecaeae order and it is originated from Malaysia, Polynesia and Southern Asia and is now prolific in South America, India and the Pacific Island. The juice and kernel (meat) of C. nucifera have been used in Malays folk medicine for number of ailments such as to relieve fever, stomach upset, headaches, diarrhea and dysentery. The juice has adequate natural minerals and high quality proteins, which are valuable for growth and repair of the body. Medical research has discovered that the coconut oil obtained from the kernel consists of monolauric and lauric acid, which helps the immune system in a beneficial manner. The monolauric acids were use by the body to produce high levels of anti-microbial activity. Lauric acid was the basic of monolaurin and was part of the chemical constituents of sodium lauryl sulfate that has been discovered to promotes health and used in adjunct treatment of viral diseases. It also found to be of the active chemicals in controlling Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease.


Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the husk ash extract ointment. This result showed that the ointment of plan Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract accelerated the wound healing process and specifically increased the epithelization in treatment groups when compared with control groups. Also the antibacterial test showed that the extract was effective against all test organisms is as shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1: Effect of Powdered Coconut husk as extract on excision wound.

Wound Area (MM)
Day Group 1 Group II Group III
0 9.8 ± 1.6 9.6 ± 1.20 9.6 ± 1.20
4 7.1 ±0.98 6.3 ±0.89 4.8 ± 0.81
8 5.6 ± 0.67 4.3 ± 0.79 3.0 ± 0.26
12 3.3 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.001

Table 2: Effect of Powdered coconut husk ash extract on excision wound (% wound closure).

Day Group 1 Group II Group III
0 0% 0% 0%
4 27% 34% 50%
8 32% 55% 68%
12 56% 90% 99%


Plant products are potential wound healing agents and largely preferred because of their widespread availability, non-toxicity, absence of unwanted side effects, and effectiveness as crude preparations [4]. In the present study, topical application of powdered coconut ash treatment had the highest percentage wound contraction ability followed by 1% silver sulphadizine and the untreated ones (control). When a wound occurs and is exposed to external environment, it is more prone to attack by microbes which gain entry through the skin and delay the natural wound healing process [5].

Previous study shows that aqueous extract of coconut husk fibre present important biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimonoplatic properties [3]. So, if any plant material presents antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities together, it can be supposed that this material also may help to promote wound healing and contribute skin regeneration.

The healing effects of powdered coconut husk ash ointment might be attributed to its ability to stimulate epithelial cell proliferations and angioigenesis. Stimulation of epithelial cell proliferations and angioigenesis are vital for wound healing process to take process. Powdered coconut husk ash extract might have accelerated epithelial regeneration, due to its ability to promote angiogenesis and collagen formation and deposition.

S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most common pathogens responsible for infection in skin wounds [6]. Since the crude extract showed antibacterial activity on test organisms, topical applications of powdered coconut husk ash extracts are effective both as microbicide and increasing wound healing rate.


The results obtained showed that Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk ash extract has good wound healing and antibacterial activities. These findings validate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of wounds.


No funding was received for this article.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Author Info

Uche Chidiebere*
Department of Biology/ Microbiology, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria

Citation: Chidiebere U (2021) . Evaluation of Antibacterial and Wound Healing Activity of Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Husk Ash Extract in Mice. Adv Tech Biol Med. 9:287.

Received: 24-Feb-2021 Accepted: 10-Mar-2021 Published: 17-Mar-2021 , DOI: 10.35248/2379-1764.21.9.292

Copyright: © 2021 Chidiebere U. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.