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Are the Clinical Signs of Lyme Borreliosis Really Understood in H
Immunogenetics: Open Access

Immunogenetics: Open Access
Open Access

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Editorial - (2016) Volume 1, Issue 1

Are the Clinical Signs of Lyme Borreliosis Really Understood in Horses?

Roberta Carvalho Basile*
Large Animals Clinical and Surgery, Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Roberta Carvalho Basile, Professor of Large Animals Clinical and Surgery, Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil, Tel: 5516 991649386 Email:

Editorial

Lyme disease is the most common zoonosis transmitted by ticks in North America and Europe, which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [1]. It is also diagnosed in Asia [2], Africa [3] and South America [4]. This kind of borreliosis is transmitted to mammals by ticks’ exposure to nymph or adult stage as far as 24 hours adhesion in the host is established, which ensures the regulation of outer surface proteins that are responsible for their survival against the host immune system [5].

The disease was first described in horses by Van Heerden and Reyers (1984) and since then many studies have reported the occurrence of clinical signs associated with seropositive horses. These signs are often nonspecific and attributed to horses by analogy of the disease in humans, such as stiffness, lameness, myopathies, back soreness, lethargy, fever, swelling of limbs, encephalitis and behavioral changes [5]. There are also some reports of concomitant uveitis and presence of Borrelia in the ocular chamber [6] and pseudolymphoma, responsive to treatment with doxycycline [7].

However, there is only one work experimentally dedicated to the disease in horses [6,7]. In this study, ponies were experimentally infected by exposure to ticks containing Borrelia burgdorferi and they were observed for 9 months. Afterwards, they were carried out to euthanasia for molecular detection of the agent in various tissues. Moreover, ponies had detectable antibodies from five to six weeks followed the exposure, although they have not presented relevant clinical signs at any moment.

In this uncertain scenario, questions begin to be risen through the scientific community regarding the significance of Lyme disease in horses and the real importance of horses in the dissemination of the etiologic agent [8]. The set of scientific papers in this area is mostly composed by reports of individual cases, serological surveys and agent molecular researches [9-12].

The Lyme borreliosis will be better understood only in horses after presentation of clinical epidemiologic studies and their correlated risk factors, in addition to controlled experimental infections aiming a more precise description on how the disease evolves in horses.

References

  1. Koedel U, Fingerle V, Pfister HW (2015) Lyme neuroborreliosis – epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Nature Reviews: Neurology 11: 446-456.
  2. Hou X, Xu J, Hao Q, Xu G, Geng Z, et al. (2014) Prevalence of Borreliaburgdorferisensulato in rodents from Jiangxi, southeastern China region.Int J ClinExp Med 7: 5563-5567.
  3. Mediannikov O, Abdissa A, Socolovschi C, Diatta G, Trape JF, et al. (2013) Detection of a new Borrelia species in ticks taken from cattle in Southwest Ethiopia.Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 266-269.
  4. Gonçalves DD, Moura RA, Nunes M, Carreira T, Vidotto O, et al. (2015) Borreliaburgdorferisensulato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil.Braz J Microbiol 46: 571-575.
  5. Divers TJ (2013) Equine Lyme disease. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33:488-492.
  6. Priest HL, Irby NL, Schlafer DH, Divers TJ, Wagner B, et al. (2012) Diagnosis of Borrelia-associated uveitis in two horses.Vet Ophthalmol 15: 398-405.
  7. Sears KP, Divers TJ, Neff RT, Miller WH Jr, McDonough SP (2012) A case of Borrelia-associated cutaneous pseudolymphoma in a horse.Vet Dermatol 23: 153-156.
  8. Bartol J (2013) Is Lyme disease overdiagnosed in horses?Equine Vet J 45: 529-530.
  9. Barbieri AM, Venzal JM, Marcili A, Almeida AP, Gonzales EM, et al. (2013) Borreliaburgdorferisensulato infecting ticks of the Ixodesricinus complex in Uruguay: First report for the Southern Hemisphere. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 147-153.
  10. Fukunaga M, Takahashi Y, Tsuruta Y, Matsushita O, Ralph D, et al. (1995) Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borreliamiyamotoi sp. nov.,isolated from the ixodid tick Ixodespersulcatus, the vector for Lyme disease in Japan.Int J SystBacteriol 45: 804-810.
  11. Ivanova LB, Tomova A, González-Acuña D, Murúa R, Moreno CX, et al. (2014) Borreliachilensis, a new member of the Borreliaburgdorferisensulato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere.Environ Microbiol 16: 1069-1080.
  12. Nava S, Barbieri AM, Maya L, Colina R, Mangold AJ, et al. (2014) Borrelia infection in Ixodespararicinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from northwestern Argentina.Acta Trop 139: 1-4.
Citation: Basile CR (2015) Are the Clinical Signs of Lyme Borreliosis Really Understood in Horses? Immunogenet open access 1: e101.

Copyright: © 2015 Basile CR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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