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An Editorial Note on Endothelium
Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Devices

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Devices
Open Access

ISSN: 2475-7586

Editorial - (2021)Volume 6, Issue 10

An Editorial Note on Endothelium

Wei Li*
 
*Correspondence: Wei Li, Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Ho Man Tin, Hong Kong, Email:

Author info »

Editorial

Endothelium is a single layer of squamous endothelial cells that lines the inside of blood and lymphatic arteries. The endothelium serves as a barrier between the lumen's circulating blood or lymph and the remainder of the vessel wall. Endothelial cells govern the movement of chemicals and fluid into and out of a tissue by forming a barrier between vessels and tissue. Vascular endothelial cells are those that come into direct touch with blood, whereas lymphatic endothelial cells are those that come into direct contact with lymph. From the heart to the smallest capillaries, vascular endothelial cells coat the whole circulatory system. Fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking are all roles performed by these cells. Endocardium is the endothelium that lines the inside surfaces of the heart chambers. Impaired function can cause major health problems all across the body. The endothelium is a thin layer of single flat (squamous) cells that lines the inside of blood and lymphatic arteries. The endothelium is derived from the mesoderm. A monolayer is formed by a single layer of endothelial cells in both blood and lymphatic capillaries. Vascular endothelial cells align and extend in the direction of fluid flow in straight parts of a blood artery.

Terminology

The foundational model of anatomy, a glossary of terms used to describe anatomical structures, distinguishes endothelial cells from epithelial cells based on which tissues they develop from, and states that endothelial cells are distinguished from epithelial cells by the presence of vimentin rather than keratin filaments. The endothelium was once thought to be a specialised epithelial tissue. The endothelium serves as a barrier between the lumen's circulating blood or lymph and the remainder of the vessel wall.

This creates a barrier between vessels and tissues, allowing chemicals and fluid to pass into and out of the tissue. This regulates the flow of items into and out of the bloodstream, as well as the movement of white blood cells. Excessive or persistent increases in endothelial permeability, such as those seen in chronic inflammation, can cause tissue swelling (edema). Cancer extravasation has also been linked to a change in barrier function.

Blood vessel formation

Angiogenesis, or the development of new blood vessels, involves the endothelium. Angiogenesis is a critical process for organ development and repair in the embryo and foetus. Reduced tissue oxygen (hypoxia) or insufficient oxygen tension activate the process, which results in the formation of new blood vessels lined with endothelial cells. Angiogenesis is controlled by signals that either encourage or inhibit the process. Integrins, chemokines, angiopoietins, oxygen detecting agents, junctional molecules, and endogenous inhibitors are among the pro- and antiangiogenic signals. Angiopoietin-2 collaborates with VEGF to promote endothelial cell proliferation and migration.

Angiogenesis can be summarised as follows:

• Activating signals bind to vascular endothelial cell surface receptors.

• Proteases released by active endothelial cells cause the basement membrane to degrade.

Endothelial cells express a number of immune genes that are particular to each organ. Important immune mediators and proteins that promote cellular communication with hematopoietic immune cells are included in these genes. Endothelial cells have an epigenome that encodes critical characteristics of the structural cell immune response, allowing them to respond quickly to immunological assaults. "Structural immunity" refers to the contribution of non-hematopoietic cells like endothelium to host immunity.

Author Info

Wei Li*
 
Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Ho Man Tin, Hong Kong
 

Citation: Li W (2021) An Editorial Note on Endothelium. J Biomed Eng & Med Dev. 6: 194

Received: 07-Oct-2021 Accepted: 12-Oct-2021 Published: 17-Oct-2021 , DOI: 10.35248/2475-7586.21.6.193

Copyright: © 2021 Li W. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.