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Vesicular Drug Delivery System (VDDS) has been highly explored in the past couple of decades due to benefits such as increased patient compliance, improved drug release, tissue targeting, avoiding the pre-systemic metabolism in the liver etc. However, the stratum corneum poses as the rate limiting barrier to the permeation of drugs through the skin, which has been a continuous challenge in VDDS. This review covers the various types of nanoparticles and nanoemulsion that are currently being investigated for VDDS applications, desirable physical and chemical characteristics of these systems, their routes of penetration through the skin, and summarizes recent advances using these systems in treating conditions such as alopecia, wound healing, psoriasis, and melanoma. Additionally, synergistic effect of iontophoresis and mechanical force mediated drug delivery will be reviewed.
Published Date: 2022-08-05; Received Date: 2022-07-04