Cocoyams (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) are important staple food in many parts of tropics including Africa, Asia and Pacific. Cocoyam is categorised as a neglected food crop and mainly grown for subsistence agriculture. Attempts to improve the crop have been limited due to knowledge gaps in physiological and biological processes affecting breeding against biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic engineering offers an alternative platform in advancing improvement. This paper highlights the progress made in tissue culture through micropropagation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The influence of genotypes, explant sources, and culture media is brought into perspective while elucidating system regeneration efficiency using axillary buds, shoot tips, meristem tips and petiole. The efficiency of transformation system using both Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment is highlighted while suggestions are made for future research in genetic engineering.