The increasingly complex socio-technical systems in modern businesses are forcing us to adapt our risk management models to a context of digital-organized production. This new phase of industrial digitization is bringing new opportunities and new challenges for managers and workers. A new work organization is emerging, along with new models for optimizing the allocation of labor to production activities. Three approaches are proposed in the literature: Mathematical optimization, models from work sciences, and integration of these two. Integrated analytical models are limited both by the number of variables considered and knowledge of the associated uncertainties. These models are static, not always focused on reducing risks at the source, and based on expert elicitation by unspecified protocols. Advances in this field are raising several questions regarding ethics, legality and safety. A model that allows systematic reduction of occupational health and safety risks and dynamic integration of operational considerations is needed. Successful businesses in the future will rely on managerial approaches that are interdisciplinary, focused on human wellbeing and draw on smart technologies and artificial intelligence.