Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0495

+44 1478 350008


Spinosad Induced Cytogenotoxic Effects on the Mosquito Fish, Poecilia reticulata

Anogwih JA, Makanjuola WA and Chukwu LO

Background : Spinosad is an insect control product developed initially for agricultural pests. In recent times, the bio-rational compound has gained popularity in the area of mosquito larval control. The cytogenotoxic potential of the naturally derived compound was investigated on the mosquito fish, Poecilia reticulata to assess its compatibility as a potential larvicide for integrated mosquito larviciding. Methods : Blood samples were collected from the gill epithelial cells of Poecilia reticulata exposed in vivo to three concentrations of Spindor dust (60 μgL - 1 , 123 μgL - 1 , 361 μgL - 1 ). The frequencies of micronucleus and other nuclear abnormal cells as well as, normochromatic cells from treated and untreated media were evaluated after sacrificing the fish at sampling times of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results : The induction of micronucleus, nuclear abnormal and normochromatic cells were highly significant (P<0.01; P<0.001). Polychromatic erythrocytes were more sensitive than binucleated cells and this occurred with increasing concentration of the larvicide (P<0.01). The ratio of polychromatic cell to normochromatic cells increased significantly by concentration and time of exposure when compared with control (P<0.05). Conclusion: The naturally derived Spinosad inhibited mitotic division in Poecilia reticulata therefore it was not compatible with the fish species for integrated mosquito larviciding at the exposed concentrations.