The economic development of modern society requires continuous improvement of transport and their efficiency throughout the span of 24 hours. Drowsiness may be a serious risk to the safety of employees, passengers and third parties. Sleepiness at the wheel is responsible for 5% to 30% of road accidents. Several pathophysiological factors governing the driving skills were studied: lifestyles, work schedules, prolonged wakefulness, stress, and sleep disorders. Screening of sleep disorders and education of workers at proper sleep hygiene are fundamental keys to the safe transport. The individual initiatives to reduce the risk of drowsiness should be framed in a more general safety effort of the institutions.