Kenneth Blum, Rajendra Badgaiyan, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio and Mark S Gold
In the early sixties we knew relatively very little about the workings of the brain especially the interrelatedness of the brain reward circuitry and the Pre-frontal cortices. Understanding the importance of the main neurotransmitters such as serotonin, GABA, dopamine and acetylcholine were unknown for the most part and endorphins was not even a part of our scientific acumen. The 1956 doctrine of Jellinek and the disease concept of alcoholism was new and not generally accepted . At that time most scientists working in the field of addiction agreed that alcoholism is the result -at least in part -of deficiencies or imbalances in brain chemistry-perhaps genetic in origin. However so little was known that nothing specific was espoused by the then newly called neuroscientists.