Ospelnikova TP, Morozova OV, Isaeva EI, Andreeva SA, Lyzogub NV, Kolodyaznaya LV, Vetrova EN, Smirnova MYu, Osipova GL, Ershov FI and Chuchalin AG
Complications of acute respiratory viral infections include pneumonia, development and exacerbations of bronchial asthma (BA). Respiratory infections with human rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza virus’s type 1 and 3 were detected in 36.2 ± 7.1 % of clinical samples of adult patients and in 54.5 ± 10.9% of samples from children with BA using RT-PCR. High frequencies of mixed respiratory infections (35.7 ± 13.3 in adult patients and 16.7 ± 11.2 among children) along with detection of antibodies against respiratory viruses in blood sera suggested immunodeficits.
Disbalance of the IFN gene expression in the absence of IFNβ gene expression, IFNα RNA detection in 58.3% samples and IFNλ RNA - in 42.9% samples together with low levels of the IFN-stimulated antiviral protein M×A RNA and IFNα/γ functional deficiency were found in the induced sputum of patients with BA. Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and especially interferon (IFN) γ (P<0.001) significantly exceeded control values of healthy donors. Additional growth of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL) 6 production was revealed for patients with the BA exacerbations. Increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were accompanied by the normal concentrations of regulatory IL10. Additionally, amounts of TGFβ responsible for induction of Th17 cells for clearing extracellular pathogens and tissue inflammation was decreased. Induction of the proinflammatory cytokines caused by the respiratory viruses and the IFN imbalance can cause allergic inflammation.