Immunity produced when variable, diverse, and joining exons recombine and form diverse B-cell receptors. Somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes termed VDJ recombination. This activity is controlled by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins, binds to the signal sequences and start cleavage. Double stranded breaks are produced by ROS, Nuclear enzymes and ATM. RAG protein induces cleavage activity. Segments exchange by CSR. After cleavage activity shuffling of segments occurs. TDT cause gain or loss of nucleotide bases. AID and RAG begins the process of CSR that shuffle exons of constant region. The core of NHEJ have catalytic subunit (DNA-Pkcs). Ku-DNA complex is important for the attachment of nuclease, polymerase and ligase of NHEJ. RAG2 with histone H3K4Me3 start recombination activity. HMG1 and HMG2 promote synapsis and cleavage. RNA Helicase of the DExD\H induces conformational changes. ZnA have ligase activity. Ku involved in the attachment of NHEJ factor DExD/H box who induce conformational changes. NHEJ machinery has XRCC4, XLF, and PAXX who ligate DNA ends. Protein kinase B and phosphoinositide-3 kinase involved in RNA expression. TOR69-3A2 is antibodies that neutralized Western equine encephalitis virus. AMMO1 is the anti gH/gL monoclonal antibody prevent to the Epstein bar virus infection. Antibodies also used for Ebola virus and Hepatitis. WT and HVR1 gpE1/gpE2 produce antibodies which target any type of cross-genotype neutralizing epitopes for HCV. GPE118, GPE325, GPE534 are targeted to different epitopes for Ebola virus.
Published Date: 2019-02-10; Received Date: 2019-01-10