Tariam Djibangar Agnès, Romuald Dassé Séry, Kouabla Liliane Siransy, Richard Yé boah Oppong, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré Adou, Sansan Hien, Amah Patricia Victorine Goran-Kouacou, Koffi N’ Guessan, Babacar Mbengue, Alioune Dieye and Sombo Mambo François
Introduction: Our study focused on the value of TCD8 cytotoxicity in susceptibility to severe malaria in endemic areas. The global purpose of the work hereby was to evaluate adaptive cellular immunity during Plasmodium falciparum malaria through TCD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Patients and methods: It was a prospective study, with analytical purpose that took place over a period of 8 months in the Pediatric Department of Hôpital Général d’Abobo and in the Immunology and Hematology Laboratory of CHU de Cocody. The study focused on 50 children (under 15 years of age) selected on the basis of WHO definition criteria for malaria infections (40 children with simple malaria and 10 severe malaria) a fact sheet and 10 witness persons. The samples carried were sent and processed in the said-laboratory.
Results: Among these 50 children, those under 5 and over 5 years accounted for 52% and 48% of the size respectively. Most of them were boys with a sex ration of 1, 77. In children under 5 years, the average rate of TCD8 was higher in simple malaria (6098.16 cells/ml) than in severe malaria (3915 cells/ml) with a statically significant difference. On the other hand, in children over 5-year-olds, the difference noticed was not significant despite relatively higher TCD8 rates. However, regardless of the age of the child, the rate of TCD8 cells was higher in malaria than in witness.
Conclusion: The study hereby shows a gradual stimulation of the specific immune system by Plasmodium falciparum. The proliferation of TCD8+ lymphocytes in the simple form could be due to the immune activity which protects against the severe form where a clonal contraction of TCD8+ could be observed. A study with a larger sample seems necessary to draw a conclusion to the comparison of these cells.