Biopolymers such as DNA, RNA and proteins are the key players in the cellular processes like cell differentiation, cell growth, maintenance, repair, recombination, transcription, translation, etc. Immense efforts have been made for their isolation, purification, quantification and structural as well as functional characterization. Profound insights into the structural and functional characterization of these biopolymers could help us understand the intricate cellular machinery. A wide range of biochemical, biophysical, electrochemical and molecular biology techniques have really been beneficial in exploring the key and interdependent relationships between the structure and function of these biopolymers. Each instrumentation technique has its own advantage and disadvantage in terms of their applications, selectivity and sensitivity. There had been a lot of advancements in these techniques for achieving their desired goals, but still, lots of limitations need our attention and further improvements. For understanding, the extremely complicated biological machinery at molecular and cellular level, every small fragment of a cell has to be studied separately with a lot of intricacies. In this review, we present a brief update of the advancements made in the large repertoire of Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Gel electrophoresis, Circular Dichroism (CD) and Fluorescence spectroscopy techniques which might be relevant for updating our knowledge of the pre-existing and well-established tools utilized by the scientists across the world.