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Antibiotic resistance is a serious issue everywhere. Today, highly resistant strains are not just found in hospitals but are ever more present in the community. Immediate action is required to understand the true state of resistance and minimize the risks of further escalation of the problem. Throughout the world there is concern that resistance to high spectrum Carbapenem antibiotics is on the rapid increase. Latin America has more reason than most to be alarmed as there is a higher rate of these enzymes being reported there than in any other continent, with some enzymes solely found in Latin American countries. To date, there have been no comprehensive epidemiological studies published internationally on the state of antibiotic resistance and carbapenems resistance from Ecuador. Apart from the obvious need to observe and control resistance and outbreaks within the country, Latin America having high rates of resistance makes any additional data invaluable to the international scientific community. Due to the serious concerns growing over antibiotic resistance, the Ecuadorian government has appointed the laboratory of the National Institute of Research in Public Health (INSPI) Quito, the national antibiotic reference lab.