Muhammad Naveed, Sheraz Khalid and Usmara Sajid
The field of nanotechnology holds the central position in biomedical field and used for the construction of materials ranges in “nanometer”. These nano-sized objects differ remarkably from other identical traditional objects due to their novel physio-chemical properties. Synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled protocols has been one of the major goals in biotechnology. NPs have revolutionized the biomedical field and acts as a splendid carrier in Drug-Delivery System (DDS). Controlled drug delivery system has many advantages over traditional forms, as it maintains a specific and controlled rate of drugs to perform an action on the site of infection. Cell-specific targeting is all due to especially composed carriers, which works specifically on target positions. Discoveries in the past decade have clearly shown that the electromagnetic, optical and catalytical properties of these NPs are greatly influenced by size, shape and distribution, which are varied by varying the reducing agents, stabilizers and the synthesis methods. An extensive review of literature has been conducted to emphasize all the synthesis aspects of NPs, computational behavior of binding of nano-carriers to biomolecules and their applications in various fields. Finally, current limitations, trials and future perspectives of NPs are also critically discussed.