Examination of the changes in cellular lipid composition, allows for an understanding in their contribution to adipocyte differentiation in health and disease. In the future the analysis of body lipid composition could offer an additional tool to diagnosing disease with the predictive capacity for prognosis.
Exposition of cells to excess of energy substrates causes activation of evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanisms in endoplasmic reticulum stress. In preadipocytes, metabolic stress, through the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress connected with modification of lipid composition and lipid droplet formation leads to differentiation.
The aim of the study was to examine changes in cellular lipid composition in parallel with gene expression and enzyme activity during preadipocyte differentiation using “omics” results.
Differentiation condition lead to activation of lipid droplets related protein expression and lipid droplet formation in preadipocytes. The predominant increase of the phospholipids, plasmalogens and cholesterol amounts during cell differentiation was observed. This was accompanied by stimulation of de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids incorporated into sphingolipids and with reduction in amount of arachidonic acid. Our results indicated that the changes in lipid composition of differentiating stromal vascular fraction cells changed in parallel with gene expression and matched the functional requirements.