Background: Tuberculosis is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB). Mycobacterium bacilli in the body will get destroyed or presented to white blood cell that could trigger immune response and ultimately establishes latent tuberculosis infection. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) hinders the development of active TB in patients with latent TB infection. All HIV positive patients without contraindications are eligible for IPT.
Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of adherence to IPT and its determinant factors among HIV positive patients at Adama Hospital Medical College ART clinic. One hundred sixty eight patients who were ≥ 18 years of age and who took IPT at least for two months were consecutively interviewed. SPSS version 21 was used for data entry, cleaning and analysis. Descriptive and analytic statistics were utilized. Crude and adjusted odds ratio (COR & AOR respectively) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to interpret the findings.
Result: A total of 168 respondents were included in the study. The seven day self-reported adherence rate was 68.5%. The average number of doses missed in the past seven days prior to the study was 0.8 doses per day. Forgetfulness (59%, N=49), being away from home (25.3%, N=21) & being busy (15.7%, N=13) were the most common reasons for ever missing pills since the start isoniazid. Abdominal side effects [AOR 3.76 (1.38, 10.26)], unclear information from health care providers [AOR 3.59 (1.63, 7.93)], not using memory aiding tools for dose schedule [AOR, 2.15 (1.03,4.49)] and perceived lack of confidentiality [AOR 7.01 (2.71,18.12)] were the factors associated with the poor adherence of IPT.
Conclusion: IPT adherence rate is poor. Clear and targeted health education should be given by service providers. Medication side effects should be addressed promptly.