Global Journal of Engineering, Design & Technology
Open Access

ISSN: 2319–7293


Impact Assessment of Urbanization and Industrialization on Surface and Groundwater Quality

Bartarya S.K. and Deoli Kanchan Bahukhandi

A study on surface and groundwater quality has been undertaken to assess impact of urbanization and industrialization on surface and groundwater quality. A total of 96 samples of surface and groundwater (tubewells and handpumps) were collected from three broad landuse categories i.e agricultural, urban and industrial areas of Dehradun districts in January, 2008 representing the winter season and 44 samples during May and October representing summer and post monsoon season respectively. These samples were analyzed for dissolve major ions (HCO3, SO4 2- , Cl- , NO3 - PO4 , F- Na+ , K+ , Mg2+, Ca2+, SiO2), trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, & bacteriological examination (total coliform & E.coli). A comparison is also made with previous data to assess the temporal change that has taken place. Most of the ion concentration in surface water of Dehradun districts is high in summer season as compared to post monsoon period indicating the effect of elevated temperature, increased evaporation and absence of recharge during the low water level period of the pre monsoon season. Among anions bicarbonate is the most dominant ion (65%) followed by sulphate (23.3%), chloride (6.4%) and nitrate (4.9%), fluoride (0.4%), phosphate (0.3%) in winter season. Among cations, calcium is most dominant ion, contributing about 63% followed by Mg (24%), Na (10.7%) and K (2.3%) in winter season. The percentage of positive result of Total coliform and E.coli has increased to 73% and 36% during summer and 70% and 47 % during post monsoon season respectively as compared to 49% and 28% during winter season, indicating higher bacteriological pollution during summer and post monsoon season