Sphingosine-1-phosphate [S1P] is a potent bioactive sphingolipid molecule. In response to a stimulus, S1P is produced intracellularly by the action of two sphingosine kinases, and then it is exported to the extracellular environment or acts as an intracellular second messenger. S1P binds to its cognate G-protein coupled receptors, which are known as S1P receptors. There are five S1P receptors that have been identified in vertebrates. By activating S1P receptors, S1P controls a variety of physiological and pathological processes including cell migration, angiogenesis, vascular maturation, inflammation, and invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in cancer. S1P has emerged as a critical regulator of leukocyte migration and plays a central role in lymphocyte egress from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs. In the current review article, we summarize the current understanding of the emigration of lymphocytes and other leukocytes from bone marrow, thymus and secondary lymphoid organs to the circulation, as well as the clinical implications of modulating the activity of the major S1P receptor, S1PR1. Sphingosine-1-phosphate [S1P] is a sphingolipid metabolite and a potent signaling molecule that regulates diverse cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration. Intense research by many groups has provided a comprehensive understanding of the role of S1P signaling in diverse physiological processes.
Published Date: 2021-02-19; Received Date: 2021-02-12