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Plant-based diets and phytochemicals present in plants can be used to decrease the risk of cancer. This article deals with Brassica species and broccoli in particular which are associated with reduced risk of several important cancers. These plants mainly contain selenium (Se) covalently bound in a number of different chemical forms which is mainly responsible for its biological activity. Further, several enzymes contain selenium in the form of the unusual selenocysteine amino acid which act on free radicals. Broccoli has the ability to accumulate Se many-fold beyond the concentration of Se present in the soil. Reflecting on the above it can be suggested that development of methods to increase the natural accumulation of Se in broccoli may greatly enhance its health-promoting properties. The present article details about green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their methods of characterizations. Green synthesis is a biological procedure which can be achieved can be achieved by using plant extracts. This method is capable of producing SeNPs in a size range of about 50-150 nm, under ambient conditions. It was found that SeNPs are able to inhibit the cell growth by dose-dependent manner. In addition, combination of SeNPs and doxorubicin shows better anticancer effect than individual treatments. The present review also brings to light about the causes and implications of toxic effects posed by Se nanoparticles as well as applications of Se nanoparticles in medicine.