Daniel Vastfjall, Penny Bergman, Anders Sköld, Ana Tajadura and Pontus Larsson
Two studies examined emotional reactions to warning and information sounds. Study 1 showed that warning sounds designed to convey four levels of warning could be differentiated with self-report measures of emotional reactions. Study 2 validated this finding with physiological measures of emotion. Results are discussed in relation to creation of warning and information sounds and methods for assessing the effectiveness of such sounds.