Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine

Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Open Access

ISSN: 2379-1764

+44 1223 790975


In Situ Heart Isolation Featuring Closed Loop Recirculation: The Gold Standard for Optimum Cardiac Gene Transfer?

Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Roger J Hajjar and Charles R Bridges

The concept of delivering nucleic material encoding a therapeutic gene to the heart has arduously moved from hypothesis to a variety of high potential clinical applications. Despite the promise however, the results achieved have yet to be realized due to several problems that persist in the clinic. One of these identified problems is the need for an efficient delivery method which facilitates complete cardiotropism and minimizes collateral effects. Additional parameters impacting gene delivery that most need to be improved have been identified as follows: (1) Increasing the contact time of vector in coronary circulation permitting transfer, (2) Sustained intravascular flow rate and perfusion pressure to facilitate proper kinetics, (3) Modulation of cellular permeability to increase uptake efficiency, and once in the cells (4) Enhancing transcription and translation within the transfected cardiac cells, and (5) Obtaining the global gene distribution for maximum efficacy. Recently it was hypothesized that use of cardiopulmonary bypass may facilitate cardiac-selective gene transfer and permit vector delivery in the arrested heart in isolated “closed loop” recirculating model. This system was named molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD). The key components of this approach include: isolation of the heart from systemic organs, multiple pass recirculation of vector through the coronary vasculature, and removing the residual vector from the coronary circulation to minimize collateral expression. These attributes unique to a surgical approach such as MCARD can effectively increase vector transduction efficiency in coronary vasculature.