Background: The ongoing Corona Virus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seen overwhelming dependence on molecular diagnostics, especially Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) techniques for diagnosis purposes. A sophisticated research/diagnostic technique has almost metamorphosed into a point of care test technique. There is an evolution of the various types of gene targets with time.
Objective: To compile a cohesive literature review of the effectiveness and accuracy of various gene targets for different RT PCR protocols/kits for detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We also want to analyze other evolving techniques and radiological techniques e.g. Computed Tomography (CT) scan for diagnosis of COVID 19.
Materials and Methods: Medline, google scholar, embase, pre-print servers (e.g. bioRxiv) were searched for literature on molecular techniques and targets for diagnosis of COVID-19.
Results: Seven original articles were retained out of the initial 33 articles/reports. The most commonly employed gene targets were E-gene, RdRp, ORF 1b, S, N, etc. Multiple novel Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol with new targets are being tried. Other molecular methods of detection are also evolving. Radiological investigation (e.g. CT scan chest) is found to very useful, especially in RT PCR negative high suspect cases.
Conclusion: Almost all RT PCR kits follow the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for two targets. Radiology (CT scan) certainly has a role in COVID diagnosis.
Published Date: 2020-08-21; Received Date: 2020-07-24