Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0495

+44 7868 792050


Effect of Heavy Metals on Fishes: Toxicity and Bioaccumulation

Pramita Garai, Priyajit Banerjee, Pradip Mondal and Nimai Chandra Saha*

Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem for the environment due to their toxicity, persistency, bioaccumulation, and bio magnifications property. Heavy metal contamination in the environment can occur from different natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural sources of heavy metals are mainly volcanic eruption and weathering of metal-bearing rocks, while the anthropogenic sources of heavy metals include agricultural and industrial activities, combustion of fossil fuel and gasoline, waste incinerators, mining, etc. The mobilization of these heavy metals to the aquatic ecosystem alters the physicochemical property of water which is hazardous for aquatic organisms. Heavy metals mainly enter the fish body through gills, body surface and digestive tract during ingestion of metal accumulated food materials. Cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic, copper, mercury, lead and zinc are the most common heavy metal pollutants that cause severe toxicity in fishes. Development of oxidative stress is the fundamental molecular mechanism of metal toxicity. The stress weakens the immune system, causes tissue and organ damage, growth defect and reduces reproductive ability. The rich source of high-quality protein filled with vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids encourage the human being to uptake fish as a major food source. So, accumulated heavy metals in the fish tissues directly transfer to the human body and cause toxic effects to expedite various diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the sources of heavy metals and their toxic effect on fish health to enforce the law and legislations regarding their protection in the aquatic environment and also to save human life.

Published Date: 2021-06-05; Received Date: 2021-05-12