Journal of Depression and Anxiety

Journal of Depression and Anxiety
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-1044


Depression and Its Associated Factors among Lower Limb Amputees at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah: A Cross Sectional Study

Mohamad Iqbal M*, Salina Mohamed, Maria Mohamad

Introduction: Clinical reports have indicated that a significant number of lower limb amputees are experiencing
psychological adjustment problems. To date, there is a dearth of studies documenting depression among lower limb
amputees (LLA) in Malaysia.
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of depression among LLA and its
associated factors.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 196 LLA who attended the Rehabilitation Medicine Clinics at
Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar. Beck Depression (BDI), Multi-Dimensional
Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), World Health Organisation Quality of Life Brief Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) and
Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were used.
Results: 47.4% of LLA had depressive symptoms. 24.5% of these patients were diagnosed to have major
depression. The findings revealed depression was associated with younger age, being single, low educational,
bilateral side of amputation, trauma as a reason for amputation, absence of prosthesis as type of walking aid,
shorter duration of amputation absence of medical co-morbidity among amputees, low social support and poor
quality of life. Low perceived social supports and absence of medical comorbidities among amputees emerged as a
significant predictor of depression among LLA in multivariate analysis.
Conclusion: Present study demonstrated high percentage of clinical depression in amputees. These findings
should encourage those in rehabilitation services to screen for depression in those attending their services to ensure
a holistic management in these patients.