Cyanobacteria are diverse in their habitats, structure, and metabolism that can grow as unicellular or long filaments and secreting high molecular mass polymers (extracellular polymer substances, EPS), which can either be released into the surrounding environment or remain attached to the cell surface. Four different cyanobacterial environmental samples (soil crust, microbial mats, pond water and marine bloom) were studied to compare between the cyanobacteria species that grow and form cyanomatrix and cyanofilms in those environmental habitats using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diatoms were also detected with cyanobacteria at microbial mats and pond water samples. All samples had variable concentrations and compositions of extracellular matrix and biofilm. Microscopic observation and analyses also revealed complex network of filamentous cyanobacteria and extracellular polymer secretions, which binds and traps particles of soil and minerals.