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Chidi Uzoma Igwel, Linus Nwaogu, Emmanuel Uche Olunkwa, Martin Otaba and Viola Onwuliri
Objective: The protective effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Euphorbia Heterophylla and Jatropha Curcas against paracetamol-induced acute changes in lipid, atherogenic and haematologic parameters of albino rats were studied.
Methodology: Twenty-five adult male albino rats weighing 180 to 200 g were randomly assigned into 5 experimental groups (I-V) of five animals each. Group I animals were administered 10 ml of distilled water, while group II rats were given 1000 mg/kg paracetamol. Groups III-V were pretreated with vitamin C (500 mg/kg), E. heterophylla (200 mg/kg) and J.curcas (1000 mg/kg) respectively, 1 h before administration of 1000 mg/kg paracetamol. The animals were orally administered the extracts/drugs daily for 14 days.
Result: Paracetamol administration reduced significantly (p<0.05) the total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and total non HDL-c concentrations as well as white blood cell (WBC) count of the animals when compared with the control. Pre-treatment of the animals with vitamin C non-significantly (p>0.05) countered the observed effects of paracetamol overdose more than the extracts of E. heterophylla and J.curcas. Acute paracetamol overdose did not significantly (p>0.05) affect most of the atherogenic risk predictor indices and haematological parameters studied.
Conclusion: The results indicate that atherogenic and haematologic indices were less responsive than lipid parameters to paracetamol-induced toxicity. Furthermore, aqueous leaf extracts of E. heterophylla and J.curcas had less protective effect than vitamin C against serum lipidaemic changes induced by paracetamol.