Akanbi O Matthew, Elekofehinti Olusola, Olatokunbo Ademola, Adejuyigbe Aderotimi and Jegede Adebola
Background: Terminalia avicennioides is one of the medicinal plants commonly use traditionally, hence this study examined the effect of total saponins from Terminalia avicennioides leaves on malaria parasite, haematological and liver in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.
Methodology: Fifty Swiss albino mice (n=10) were divided into five groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were infected with malaria parasite and treated with 100, 200 mg/kg of saponins, and 5 mg/kg artemether-lumefantrine respectively (positive control). Group 4 was infected but not treated (negative control), group 5 was neither infected nor treated (normal control). The treatment was administered orally for four days.
Results: The parasite clearance was higher in the positive control group (80%) than in the group treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of saponins (43.5% and 56.95%) respectively. White blood cell and lymphocyte count were higher in the group treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of saponins. The red blood cell and haemoglobin levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the group treated with 200 mg/kg of saponins than in all other groups. The platelet count (PLT) was lowest in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of saponin. There was a significant reduction in (p<0.05) in the Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in the normal control than in other groups.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the antiplamodial activity of total saponin of T. avicenniodes and its effects on haematology and liver dysfunction are dose related. It is therefore recommended that low dosage of saponin from T. avicennioides should be used for the treatment of malaria.