Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the major lifestyle-related metabolic disorders with emerging high incidence around the globe. The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is around 4.5% among Nepalese population as per the data of 2013 and the trend is just increasing yearly. Among various complications associated with DM, different patterns of liver diseases like fatty liver, cirrhosis and acute liver failure also count to be crucial ones. Early assessment of liver profile parameters provides better information for the management and cure of possible liver damages in type 2 diabetic population. The present study aimed to assess and compare liver parameters in Nepalese type 2 diabetic population.
Methods: A total number of 300 patients were included in descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital. Among them, 162 were type 2 Diabetic and 138 were non-Diabetic control population. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c were estimated to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin were estimated to assess liver function by using standard methods. The parameters were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0 and data with p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: We observed increased level of ALT (57%) and AST (46%) among patients with diabetes mellitus. Moreover, a significant level of elevation in AST and ALT was observed among the patients with DM compared to non-diabetic controls (p<0.001). Although not significant statistically, the level of ALP was also high among the diabetic group of patients. However, total protein, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly decreased in diabetic group of patients compared to non-diabetic controls. In addition, transaminases were also significantly associated with duration of diabetes. The levels of HbA1c were positively correlated with transaminases at significant level.
Conclusion: Type 2 DM is associated with mild chronic changes in transaminases and decrease hepatic functions. Routine assessment of liver parameters in those populations may prevent further complications associated with liver due to insulin resistance.