Biomarker also called as a biological marker which refers to a measurable indicator for some biological state or condition which was introduced in 1950s. Ex: Rubidium chloride is a radioactive isotope used to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle. It also refer to a substance whose detection indicates the presence of a living organism. Biomarkers are measured and evaluated to examine a biological processes, its pathogenicity, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers are used in many scientific fields. Biomarkers used for personalized medicine are typically categorized as either prognostic or predictive. Another example is KRAS, an oncogene that encodes a GTPase involved in several signal transduction pathways. Prognostic biomarkers indicate the likelihood of patient outcome regardless of a specific treatment. Predictive biomarkers are used to help optimize ideal treatments, and indicates the likelihood of benefiting from a specific therapy. Biomarkers for precision oncology are typically utilized in the molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia, colon, breast, lung cancer and in melanoma.
Due Date of the Submission: May 2018
Publication Date: June 2018
Department of Radiology
Odense University Hospital