Contamination of membranes causes a higher energy use, a higher cleaning frequency and a shorter life span of the membrane. Membrane contamination is usually called fouling. The optimum operating conditions and pore size to reduce fouling of the membranes depend on the pore size to particle size ratio and the physicochemical interactions between the solute and membrane. Membrane fouling can cause severe flux decline. There are various types of foulants: colloidal (clays, flocs), biological (bacteria, fungi), organic (oils, polyelectrolytes, humics) and scaling (mineral precipitates)
Related Journals: Advanced Chemical Engineering Open Access, Chemical Sciences Journal Open Access, water technology, Journal of water treatment, Environmental Journal, International Scholarly Research Notices, Power engineering Magazine.