The research revolves around the study of hard-core criminals and their criminal tendencies. 10 criminals and 10 noncriminals were studied and analyzed through this study. Interview, Questionnaire, and Photography are the methods used in comparing criminal and non-criminal traits. The period of study is two months (December to February). Criminal behavior is not an indication of mental illness, or else it could have been medically treated and cured. Some criminals are engaged in antisocial behavior due to psychiatric conditions that would include symptoms like hyperactivity, fewer communication skills, low intelligence etc. Researchers conclude that about 70 percent of criminals belong to broken homes. Dysfunctional families can also lead people to psychological problems. Broken families may also include a bad relationship with family members, conflicts, breakups and even criminal parents. Personality theory of Eysenck revolves around three types of personalities and the psychoanalytical theories relate criminal tendencies with poor social relationships, lack of guilt, ego and pleasure-seeking personality. So, this study comes across various parameters of criminal palmistry, family studies, personality theory and psychoanalytical study. The types of criminal behavior studied include crimes against property and persons. The palmistry studies might be found useful in revealing criminal and violent tendencies. Palmistry can be used for carrying out criminal investigations. To a great extend palm of a person can be analyzed to identify, certify a crime and conclude the nature of the crime. The study in this field might be helpful in controlling future crime rates by acknowledging people about criminal behavior and also if the palm of all the citizens is analyzed for creating a database, it would be helpful in crime management as well as criminal investigations.
Criminal palmistry; Violent tendencies; Personality; Behavior; Psychoanalytic; Unsocial behavior; Broken homes; Murderer’s thumb; Hand lines.
The people who commit a crime must be considered as unstable, and hence morally, mentally or emotionally defective. The lines on the palm are not by default, so hand lines can disclose a lot about behavior, health, character, future, etc. Palmistry studies do reveal about violent behavior and criminal tendencies. The main aim of this study is, to sum up, the various hand signs that link to abnormal features and animalistic traits.
Palmistry has early roots in many regions. Palmistry was famous in ancient India according to Brahmanism records and many mural relics. The nineteenth-century European and Americans had a passion for listing racial groups and personal character through physical recognitions. Palmistry concerns itself first of all with the study of character as expressed in the hand, not struggling to predict the future. Nevertheless, the wonderful fineness of the ancients in reading past, present, and future based on the line of destiny, the recording of mis happenings like illness or accidents and about the crisis that is written. Our hand is the catalog of our mind, so any latent or active antisocial habit in someone ’ s personality can be easily estimated by palmistry. The social label has a complementary part in causing criminal behavior .
Behavioral study of criminals includes biological, psychoanalytic and social learning theories . The biological theory includes constitutional theory, chromosomal theory, genetic transmission, family studies, twin studies, adoption studies, and neurological factors. The psychoanalytic theory relates to unusual conflicts in childhood with some criminal behavior. Many psychological and sociological factors lead to criminality. These might not be always due to race and poverty. The absence of the love, care, affection fights between parents, conflicts, poor housing will affect the psychology of the children and later on result in violent behavior. The broken family leads children to domestic violence and the mistreatment of children contributes to criminal activity . Children who come from these broken families tend to have negativity. When not being nurtured from caring adults, they begin expressing their own form of acceptance .
Psychological theories (propensity theories) are of three kinds that suggest a link between personality traits and criminal aggressive behavior (CAB). First, Personality traits correlate with antisocial behavior. Second, personality traits can influence the decision about crimes. Third, personality traits have a causal contribution either increasing the risk of CAB . Eysenck proposed a criminological theory in which personality traits play a central role. Individuals inherit predispositions to react in predictable ways under specific environmental conditions. Eysenck's theory supports the fact that individuals with high bars of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism are more likely to commit crimes. The psychoanalytic theory includes dependency, and aggressive impulses, the superego, psychic needs, and conflicts . The frustration of these needs leads to inner disturbance. Anger within may be expressed in the form of aggressive behaviors and will lead to complaints and demands for attention .
To compare the criminal tendencies in criminals and noncriminals using psychology theories and to analyze criminal palms using palmistry and criminal tendencies study.
Tools of data collection
A tool is an aid with necessary and relevant information that could be gathered systematically to the subject matter. The tool was decided on the basis of the objectives of the study.
The Questionnaire method was the tool of data collection, which was used by the researcher for the purpose of collecting data from the respondents. The questionnaire method is the best method for collecting the maximum information in a systematic method.
Sample collection and procedure
A survey of 10 criminals (hardcore) of age group between 21-40, convicted and published for various crimes were taken for this research. These criminals were involved in crimes such as kidnapping, wrongful restraint of a person, mischief causing money, criminal intimidations etc. All the criminals were daily wage workers involved in construction works.
A comparative study of an equal number of common people belonging to the same age group and occupational background was done. All the samples taken were males. The time period of the study is of 2 months (December-February) and the localities of study are Mannar, Kuttamperoor, Chennithala and Ennakkadu of Alappuzha district, Kerala, India.
The sampling method used here is Systematic sampling.
Secondary data was collected from the Mannar police station of Alappuzha district, Kerala, India.
• Criminals and non-criminals were visited and interviewed personally for studying about their personality and behavior.
• Questionnaire with 4 major categories: Behavioral Study, Family studies, Psychoanalytical study, and Personality study was prepared and used in order to interview the people.
• A mobile camera of 48 megapixels was used to take photographs of the palms of the samples for further references.
More recently researchers have searched for support for the genetic transmission of crime within criminal families. Earlier researches had claimed this was so by looking at the family trees of criminals. eg. Dugdale ’ s study of the Jukes family and Goddard’s. Findings say that 40% of the sons of the criminal fathers turned criminals but 60% of the sons of the criminal fathers did not commit a crime.
Once again, being born into a criminal family is not a necessary condition for criminal behavior. Another variable which family members share, e.g. poverty and parenting style, might account for the criminal behavior. David Farrington and his colleagues carried out a 30-year longitudinal study of working-class boys to see which of them became delinquent and concluded that the important predictors are low income, a large family, parental criminality and poor child-rearing techniques [8,9].
So, crime does seem to run in families, but why? Risk factors for animalistic behavior that may or may not result in criminal convictions include parental criminality, ineffective and inconsistent discipline, family discord, bad parent-children relationship, family conflicts, poor housing and a deviant peer group  (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Comparitive analysis of different familial aspects between criminals and non criminals.
Our study includes a survey on:
• Criminal parents
• Poor family
• Large family
• Harsh parental discipline
• Family conflict
• Poor housing
• Marital breakup
• Problem with own children
• Death of parent
The main parts of this study include the following mentioned characteristic evaluation (Figure 2):
• Troublesome/dishonest in school
• Low intelligence
• Bitten nails
• Low pulse rate
• Associated with gang
Figure 2: Comparitive analysis behavioural aspects between criminals and non criminals.
Eysenck ’ s explanation of crime combines biological and individual factors. Much research has been generated in attempts to verify Eysenck’s prediction that criminals should achieve a high score in P E N [4,10].
Criminals possessed these personality traits more than noncriminals.
• Extraversion (full of energy)
• Neuroticism (moody, frustrated, angry, depressed)
• Psychoticism (aggressive)
• Psychoanalytic study
Freud himself had little to say about crime, but he explains adult criminal behavior as inherently asocial, self-destructive impulses etc. Superego will result in the loss of control over antisocial impulses, impulsiveness and lack of guilt leading to unacceptable behavior. Lack of mother-children relationships is an alternative suggestion  (Figure 3).
• Inherently asocial
• Motivated by pleasure-seeking impulse
• Lack of guilt
• Unacceptable behavior
• Poor mother & child relation
Figure 3: Comparative analysis of various psychoanalytic aspects between criminals and non criminals.
• Chromatically in the simian line, the Sydney line and Suwon line were more frequent in criminal hands than in common people .
• The long nature of palms, short fingers, short headlines, short heart line, joined heart and headline shows criminal nature.
• The absence of the fate line was noticeable among criminals and not in non-criminals.
• A short underdeveloped or low set thumb was found significantly in criminal hands.
• Personality studies resulted in showing most of the criminals as Neocriticists as they remain frustrated and moody.
Some other traits observed mostly on criminal palms are:
• Broken skin ridges.
• Short thumb and fingers.
• Short or broken head line and heart lines.
• Fate line absent.
• Low set thumb.
• Types of skincare:
• Dry skin looks dull and feels rough.
• Oily skin looks glossy and feels slippery.
• Various skin type mixtures result in a Combination of skin.
Normal skin has:
• Fine pores
• Good blood circulation
• Smooth texture
• A fresh transparency
• No blemishes
80% of the criminals were having dry skin, 10% were having oily skin and 10% were having combination skin. While 70% of the non-criminals have combination skin, 20% have oily skin and 10% have dry skin.
Major hand lines
Heartline: Runs from the little to the index finger and it shows emotional stability, cardiac health, love, depression etc.
Headline: Shows the knowledge, learning style, and intellectualism. The curved headline shows the creativity and straight line shows the practicality of the person.
Lifeline: Deals with the way you apply your energy. It is most frequently long and round, short, or diagonal.
Palmistry can be serviceable in criminal studies as it can help to figure out whether people are ‘ born criminals ’ or if their environment is responsible for their unusual behaviour [1,11]. If the fingers look short in comparison to the rest of the palm, it shows animal nature, carrying harsh behavior against real intellectuality, and this kind of people usually belong to the lower scale of humanity. People with long fingers and enlarged joints are of critical nature. The loosely held fingers usually point out the weakness of character.
Below here are few signs in palmistry that can show people with violent tendencies.
• Region in the palm which located at thumb base. It indicates passion, a hardworking and success-oriented person. He would be also good at business and criminality. An overdeveloped mount of Venus points towards an unhealthy, over-exercised desire for sensual activities such as drinking or sexual desires . It depends not only on the height of the mount; wide mounts are better and they indicate self-indulgence while high and hard-packed mount indicates demanding and selfishness.
• It is also known as percussion Mars which indicates war and the mount indicates firm, brave, fearless, frank nature of the person. Reddish or thick mount of mars indicates that the person cannot withstand even little matters, loses temper very easily and becomes violent or upset when drunk. An overdeveloped mount of mars indicates the person is more likely to become a villain or a criminal and indulge in anti-social activities [6,8].
• Thumb is the keynote to one ’ s character and is the most important finger to read in palm reading as it reveals the will power and independence. The clubbed thumb is also known as Murderer’s thumb and its medical terminology goes like brachydactyly type D . Congenital idiots usually have a small thumb. The clubbed thumb is most often seen in women compared to that of men and it indicates a powerful temper, brutal nature, having no control over self, most liable to go to any extreme of crime. It has short phalange. The thumbnail is broad, bulk shaped, round, low set thumb and fleshy  (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Clubbed thumb.
• Jupiter fingers: Short index finger has higher chances of ending up in prison or getting mad.
• Short head and heart lines.
• If the second finger is longer by half-inch or more, then according to palmistry the person would turn out to be the murderer.
• Star found on the third phalange of the second finger.
• Longer palm and shorter finger.
• Practical hands and square palms.
• Absence of fate line: It reveals a person’s power to control his destiny. A man with an undeveloped or absent fate line is immature emotionally and weak. He will end up playing the victim role due to environmental factors.
The skin of the criminal hands would be hard, tough and coarse and the thickness of the skin denotes the flow of energies. A twisted little finger denoted lying or trickery nature of a person. When a finger shows a twist, it is a sign of defeat, avoiding facing facts, unable to follow a straight path, lacking inner harmony, immoral and hardly achieving anything worthwhile in life. Unusually cold hands denote aggressiveness in nature. Coarse skin texture denotes rough nature and grace lacks in their personality. When the ring finger is longer than the index finger, self-satisfaction is balanced. If a little finger leans towards the third finger, it is a sign of a liar. When the ring and middle fingers are bent, it shows an irresponsible person. When the middle finger is ill formed, a person has unbalanced behavior. Some of the antisocial tendencies which any palmist can look forward to spotting in the hands are: Simian line means running together of the heart and headlines which is most commonly seen in the hands of gorilla and monkeys, this indicates the inner conflict. A person with a Simian line will lose control and often tend to commit crimes when his feelings and desires are aroused. If the mount of Venus is large, nails are short, and with large mars mount, he may end up committing murder to fulfill his emotions and desires. Sydney line indicates the intolerance nature, minor behavioral problems and unpleasant nature. Suwon line that crosses the hand like bar indicates unsympathetic nature which is very common in criminals [1,7,10].
Different criminal palms analysed
The above figures of criminal hands clearly show some characteristics of criminal tendencies (Figure 5):
• Short heart and headlines.
• Absence of fate line.
• Longer palm.
• Coarse skin texture.
• Clubbed thumb.
• Jupiter's fingers.
• Practical hands.
• Unconnected headline and lifeline.
Figure 5: Different criminal palms.
Special case study
A criminal hand was studied and compared to that of Hitler's hand and chimpanzee's hand and found to be contrasting positively. A criminal who has been registered with 3 cases of IPC sections 220/06, 365, 348, 506. Cr266/06, 394, 427, 34. Cr 68/07, 447, 324, 348, 32, Cr 153/07/U/s 3 etc. For the last 7 years. He is a 37-year-old, South Indian male. Mesomorph body type, cold glassy eyes, pointed nose, thin lips, projecting ears well developed-strong jaw. His behavioral studies proved him dishonest and aggressive by nature. He is inherently asocial, motivated by pleasure-seeking impulse, superego, lack of guilt, unacceptable behavior etc. Criminal hands could be understood by square palm, short fingers and coarseness. The criminal hand was studied and taken photographs, later compared with that if Hitler's hand & Chimpanzee hand studies that denoted long palm along with long fingers. Short fingers along with an also low set of thumb and longer palm, thus denoting the violent and aggressive nature. Also, this aspect can be seen on the chimpanzee’s hand (Figures 6a & 6b).
Figure 6: (a) Hands of Hitler & Chimpanzee; (b) Hand of Suresh Kumar.
As per the already existing studies and researches, some of the criminal palmistry factors such as a low set of thumb, short fingers, long palm, square palm, rough and dry hand, short head and heart lines, absence of fate line, broken skin ridges, clubbed thumb etc. could reveal the criminal tendencies of the person. The study has covered the scientific studies of the hand analyzing. Hence this article will be useful to those researches interested in verifying the hidden truth which has not been scientifically authenticated. Palmistry is a mixture of Chiromancy, Chirognomy and hand gestures into one study. As the family study of this work showed, criminals are more likely to possess characteristics like Criminal parents, Poor family, Large family, Harsh parental discipline, Family conflict, Poor housing, Marital breakup, Problem with own children and Death of parent than that of non-criminals. As the behavioral study concludes, criminals are more likely to possess traits like, Troublesome/dishonest in school, Hyperactive, Low intelligence, Unpopular, Aggressive, Drunkard, Bitten nails, Low pulse rate, Smoker and Associated with gangs. Personality and Psychoanalytical theories lead us to a point where criminals are noticed to be possessing traits like: Inherently asocial, motivated by pleasure-seeking impulse, Superego, Lack of guilt, Unacceptable behavior and Poor mother & child relation. Based on theories I can emphasize that hand analyzing and psychological theories can be used for recognizing criminal tendencies in people thus leading to early identification of people possessing criminal tendencies and giving them actual counseling help to not let them go into antisocial nature.
All gratitude and praise to the Lord for the ocean of blessings he has showered on me. We would like to place our heartfelt gratitude and sincere thanks to Ms. Emi Mathew, Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, BCM College, Kottayam, Kerala and Mr. Mahesh. A. Tripathi, Assistant Professor, School of Forensic Science and Risk Management, Raksha shakti University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat for their sincere guidance and valuable suggestions. It is indeed a pleasure for me to thank Police officers, Mannar Police station, for their support, help, encouragement and security.
We place in the record our sincere thanks to Mr. Afrozulla Khan Z for his support in structuring this work and to every person who helped us knowingly or unknowingly to finish this work in a successful way. We’re privileged to enjoy the constant love and blessing of our parents, whose prayers and attention have been throughout.
Citation: Mathew M (2020) A Preliminary Study on Criminal Tendencies in Reference to Hand Analysis, Behavioral Study, Family Study, Personality Theory and Psychoanalytical Study. J Psychol Psychother. 10:374. doi: 10.35248/2161-04184.108.40.2064
Received Date: May 13, 2020 / Accepted Date: May 29, 2020 / Published Date: Jun 08, 2020
Copyright: © 2020 Mathew M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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