Instructions for Authors
Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to us. These instructions will ensure the requiremsnts so that your paper can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal's requirements.
Biology and Medicine provides the rapid bimonthly publication of articles in all areas related to Marine Biology, Human Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Biological Experiments, Cell Biology, Immunology, Cancer Biology, Nuclear Medicine, Alternative Medicine, Hebal Medicine, Migraine Medicine, Emergencgy Medicine, Anxiety Medicine, Diabetic Medicine, Depression Medicine and other related areas. Biology and Medicine journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately one week after final acceptance.
As a member of Publisher International linking Association, PILA, Biology and Medicine (of Longdom Publishing SL) follows the Creative Commons Attribution License and Scholars Open Access publishing policies.
A manuscript number will be e-mailed to the corresponding author within 72 hours.
Formats for Longdom Publishing SL Contributions
Longdom Publishing SL accepts the following: original articles, reviews, abstracts, addendums, announcements, article-commentaries, book reviews, rapid communications, letters to the editor, annual meeting abstracts, conference proceedings, calendars, case-reports, corrections, discussions, meeting-reports, news, obituaries, orations, product reviews, hypotheses and analyses.
Longdom Publishing SL Policy Regarding the NIH Mandate
Longdom Publishing SL will support authors by posting the published version of articles by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central immediately after publication.
Editorial Policies and process
Biology and Medicine follows a progressive editorial policy that encourages researchers to submit the original research, reviews and editorial observations as articles, well supported by tables and graphic representation.
Article Processing Charges (APC):
Longdom Publishing SL Biology and Medicine is self-financed and does not receive funding from any institution/government. Hence, the Journal operates solely through processing charges we receive from the authors and some academic/corporate sponsors. The handling fee is required to meet its maintenance. Being an Open Access Journal, Biology and Medicine does not collect subscription charges from readers that enjoy free online access to the articles. Authors are hence required to pay a fair handling fee for processing their articles. However, there are no submission charges. Authors are required to make payment only after their manuscript has been accepted for publication.
Average Article processing time (APT) is 55 days
Author Withdrawal Policy
An author is free to withdraw an article at no charge-as long as it is withdrawn within a week of its original submission. After a week, there is a withdrawal fee. Once peer review is completed and/or the paper is accepted for publication, there are some costs of the process, which is about 40% of the publishing fee. This cost is used for the publishing fee bonus of Biology and Medicine reviewers. Therefore, the withdrawal fee is 40% of the publishing fee.
Submission of an Article
- One of the authors of the article, who takes responsibility for the article during submission and peer review, should follow the instructions for submission and submit the manuscript.
- Submitted articles should have a summary/abstract, separate from the main text, of up to 300 words.
- This summary does not include references, numbers, abbreviations or measurements unless essential.
- The summary should provide a basic-level introduction to the field; a brief account of the background and principle of the work; a statement of the main conclusions; and 2-3 sentences that place the main findings into a general context.
- The text may contain a few short subheadings of no more than 40 characters each.
- All submissions should be accompanied by a 500 words or less cover letter, briefly stating the significance of the research, agreement of authors for publication, number of figures and tables, supporting manuscripts, and supplementary information.
- Please provide the contact details (name and email addresses) of two potential peer reviewers for your manuscript. These should be experts in their field who will be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. The suggested peer reviewers should not have published with any of the authors of the manuscript within the past five years, should not be current collaborators and should not be members of the same research institution. Suggested reviewers will be considered along with potential reviewers recommended by the Editorial Board members.
- Also, include current telephone and fax numbers, as well as postal and E-mail address of corresponding author to maintain communication.
Article Preparation Guidelines
A manuscript should be in the DOC Format including the headings in an order such as:
- Manuscript title - brief phrase describing the contents of the paper, limited to 25 words or less, should not contain abbreviations.
- Author Information - affiliation of all authors with contact details of corresponding author - Telephone, Fax and E-mail address.
- Abstract - informative and completely self-explanatory, brief, indicating significant data, and pointing out major findings and conclusions in 300 words or less.
- Keywords (3-10) and Abbreviations
- Text should contain the following headings such as: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Discussion Results, Conclusion.
Acknowledgments, Sources of Funding, and Disclosures:
- Acknowledgments: The acknowledgments section lists each individual’s substantive contributions. Authors should obtain written, signed permission from all individuals listed in the ‘Acknowledgments’ section of the manuscript, because readers may infer their endorsement of data and conclusions. These permissions must be provided to the Editorial Office.
- Sources of Funding: Authors must list all sources of research support relevant to the manuscript. All grant funding agency abbreviations or acronyms should be completely spelled out.
- Conflict of Interest: Authors must state any disclosures in the cover letter when submitting a manuscript. If there is no conflict of interest, please state “Conflict of Interest: None to report.” Conflicts of interest pertain to relationships with pharmaceutical companies, biomedical device manufacturers or other corporations whose products or services are related to the subject matter of the article. Such relationships include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, ownership of stock, membership on a standing advisory council or committee, membership of a board of directors, or a public association with the company or its products. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest could include receiving honoraria or consulting fees or receiving grants or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations. The corresponding author should collect Conflict of Interest information from all co-authors before submitting a manuscript.
Tables and Figures:
- Each table should be numbered and cited in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e., Table 1, 2, 3, etc.).
- Titles for tables should appear above the table and be no longer than 15 words. They should be pasted at the end of the document text file, in A4 Portrait or Landscape format. These will be typeset and displayed as such in the final, published form of the article.
- Tables should be formatted using the ‘Table object’ in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data remain aligned when the file is sent electronically for review.
- Tables should not be embedded as figures or spreadsheet files. Larger datasets or tables too wide for a Landscape page can be uploaded separately, as additional files.
- Additional files will not be displayed in the final, laid-out PDF of the article, but a link will be provided to the files as supplied by the author.
- Figures should be provided in a separate single .DOC, .PDF or .PPT file, with a resolution of at least 300 dpi and not be embedded in the main manuscript file. If a figure consists of separate parts, please submit a single, composite illustration page that includes all parts of the figure. There is no charge for the use of color figures.
- The figure legends should be included in the main manuscript text file at the end of the document, rather than as part of the figure file.
- For each figure, Figure numbers should be provided in sequence, using Arabic numerals, a title of 15 words maximum and a detailed legend of up to 300 words. Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.
Note: If an author fails to submit his/her work as per the above instructions, they are pleased to maintain clear titles namely headings, subheading.
All references, including links, must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets, in the order in which they are cited in the text, and should be formatted in the National Library of Medicine style. Each reference must have an individual reference number. Please avoid excessive referencing. Only articles, datasets and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited. The author is responsible for obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from cited colleagues. Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
Citations in the reference list should include all named authors, up to the first 6, before adding ‘et al.’. Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers’ assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.
Style and Language:
Longdom Publishing S.L. only accepts manuscripts written in English. Spelling should be either U.S. English or British English, but not a mixture.
Longdom Publishing S.L. will not edit submitted manuscripts language; thus, reviewers may advise rejection of a manuscript due to grammatical errors. Authors are advised to write clearly and simply, and to have their article checked by colleagues before submission. In-house copyediting will be minimal. Non-native speakers of English may choose to make use of our copyediting services. Please contact [email protected] for more information. Abbreviations should be used as sparingly as possible and should be defined when first used.
- Please use double-line spacing.
- Use justified margins, without hyphenating words at line breaks.
- Use hard returns only to end headings and paragraphs, not to rearrange lines.
- Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns in the title.
- Number all pages.
- Use the correct reference format.
- Format the text in a single column.
- Greek and other special characters may be included. If you are unable to reproduce a particular character, please type out the name of the symbol in full. Please ensure that all special characters are embedded in the text; otherwise, they will be lost during PDF conversion.
- SI units should be used throughout (‘liter’ and ‘molar’ are permitted).
For Original Articles, Methodology Articles and Reviews, there is no explicit limit on the length of papers submitted, but authors are encouraged to be concise. Commentaries and Case Reports should be between 800 and 1,500 words. Letters to the Editor should be between 1,000 and 3,000 words. There is also no restriction on the number of figures, tables, additional files or references that can be included. Figures and tables should be numbered in the order in which they are referenced in the text. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.
The abstract of Original and Methodology Articles should not exceed 250 words and must be structured into Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions. For Reviews, please provide an unstructured, single paragraph summary of no more than 350 words, of the major points raised. For Commentaries and Case Reports, please provide a short, unstructured, single paragraph summary of no more than 150 words. For Letters to the Editor, please provide a short, unstructured, single paragraph summary of no more than 250 words.
Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. Please list your trial registration number after the abstract, if applicable.
Add a list of 3 to 10 keywords below the abstract.
The Accession Numbers of nucleic acid, protein sequences or atomic coordinates cited in the manuscript should be provided in square brackets and include the corresponding database name.
Initial Review Process
Submitted manuscripts will be evaluated initially by the editor-in-chief and an associate editor. A rapid, initial decision regarding whether to have a manuscript formally reviewed by two or more reviewers with appropriate expertise, or rejected without a formal review will be determined based on the quality, scientific rigor and data presentation/analysis of the manuscript. It is anticipated that approximately 70% of the submitted manuscripts will undergo formal review and 30% will be rejected without evaluation by external reviewers.
Instructions for Revised Submissions
- Please provide a copy of the revised text with changes marked in the text using either tracking changes or highlighting.
- In your written response to the reviewers’ comments, give the page number(s), paragraph(s), and/or line number(s) where each revision was made.
- Respond to each referee’s comments, indicating precisely the changes made in response to the critiques. Also, give reasons for suggested changes that were not implemented, and identify any additional changes that were made.
- Revisions not received within 2 months will be administratively withdrawn. For further consideration, the manuscript must be resubmitted de novo. At the editors’ discretion, and in cases where substantial new data are required, extensions may be granted for revisions. In such cases, every effort will be made to retain the original reviewers.
Tables and Equations as Graphics:
If equations cannot be encoded in MathML, submit them in TIFF or EPS format as discrete files (i.e., a file containing only the data for one equation). Only when tables cannot be encoded as XML/SGML can they be submitted as graphics. If this method is used, it is critical that the font size in all equations and tables is consistent and legible throughout all submissions.
- Suggested Equation Extraction Method
- Table Specifications
- Equation Specifications
- Discrete items of the Supplementary Information (for example, figures, tables) referred to at an appropriate point in the main text of the paper.
- Summary diagram/figure included as part of the Supplementary Information (optional).
- All Supplementary Information is supplied as a single PDF file, where possible. File size within the permitted limits for Supplementary Information. Images should be a maximum size of 640 x 480 pixels (9 x 6.8 inches at 72 pixels per inch).
Proofs and Reprints:
Electronic proofs will be sent as an e-mail attachment to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (HTML, PDF and XML) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
All works published by Longdom Publishing SL are under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.