TRIM, a multi-domain protein associated with N-terminal ring finger E3 ligase and C-terminal plant homeodomain/ bromodomain PHD chromatin interacting module, N-terminal ring finger known as ring B-boxes and coiled-coil RBCC domain with structure that underscores biochemical reaction which requires enzymes like E1, E2 and E3 of which E3 serves as receptor recognition for target proteins. Most TRIM proteins are E3 ligases in the ubiquitination cascade that translated in diverse physiological and biological processes such as differentiation, growth, transcription and oncogenesis. Implicated in pathological processes from Mendelian inherited disorders, cellular (plethora) processes like cell cycle regulation, innate immune response and apoptosis to cancer. Genetic factors are at high risk and contributed between 30%-50% disease prevalence like obesity, cirrhosis. TRIM28 (TIF1β), TRIM24 (TIF1α), TRIM33 (TIF1γ) are cofactors of tripartite motif TRIM subfamily protein, distinct transcriptional factors that correlate with each other and interact with other proteins both in functional and physical in cancer disease. Studies have shown that TRIM protein is a regulator in inflammatory, infectious and cancer diseases. This review focused on tripartite genes as a liver cancer target via regulating immune cells and the gut microbiome. More on research so far, disease development, progression and influence. Considering the incident rate and progression, genetic involvement remain challenging thus needs more insight on prognosis that will potentiate clinical effect with lesser adverse events and recurrences that will benefit the patients.
Published Date: 2019-10-14; Received Date: 2019-08-14