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Primary synovial chondromatosis is well known in large joints, the knee, followed by hip mainly in male adults are the most commonly involved sites. Primary process represents benign neoplastic formation of hyaline cartilage nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint, tendon sheath, or bursa. Interesting developmental progress may be seen; the nodules may detach from the synovium and form loose bodies. The differential list of the synovial chondromatosis includes benign and malignant conditions. The pathologic appearance may simulate chondrosarcoma because of significant histologic atypia. Radiologic correlation is vital for correct diagnosis. There are only limited publications about synovial chondromatosis of the spine, published in English literature and absolutely no published data in Russian literature. Treatment of primary disease is surgical synovectomy with removal of chondral fragments. The recurrence rates range significantly. This is the first case of the primary synovial chondromatosis of the spine in our practice.