Serine proteases are involved in several biochemical processes that are essential for the biology of pathogens, including Leishmania sp. Considering their importance, an interest in serine proteases for vaccine development against leishmaniasis has been raised. As targets, these enzymes have demonstrated a dual role in a vaccine against leishmaniasis, both protective and a counter-protective, depending on the conditions that they are evaluated. In this work, serine proteases or inhibitors of them that have been used as components of vaccines to Leishmania sp. are presented, aiming to disseminate the knowledge gained about these proteases and their potential in potential vaccine against leishmaniasis.