Lara Moscoloni Luis Felipe*
Intravesical immunotherapy with BCG for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is used routinely, urological complications can be variable from self-limited to some that can put the patient's life at risk, in addition, the complications can develop immediately after instillation or years after the end of treatment. India Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990, it´s a live attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium Bovis. Is the standard treatment for intravesical immunotherapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Its use is very common in urologists. Its immune mechanism is not yet clear, but it is proposed that the mechanisms involve the binding of BCG to cancer cells in the bladder, followed by secretion of cytokines and chemokines; presentation of BCG or cancer cell antigens by phagocytes to T helper cells; A sequence of cell surface interactions is required including CD4, T cell receptor and antigen, class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) antigen, Lymphocyte Function Antigen 1 (LFA1), CD28, CD80 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Its use in clinical practice has been shown to reduce recurrence rates and delay the time to first recurrence compared to transurethral resection alone.
Published Date: 2021-06-26; Received Date: 2021-06-05