Background: Even though the proportion of previously treated TB patients’ (retreatment cases) is increasing at alarming rate, there is scarcity of data regarding their magnitude and treatment outcomes. Therefore, this study is meant to assess TB retreatment case rate and their treatment outcomes at Adama hospital medical college (AHMC) in Ethiopia.
Methods: The study employed a retrospective cross-sectional survey where a total of 732 registered TB patients’ data were reviewed between Aprils to May 2014. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0.
Results: In this study, 147 (20%) of 732 TB cases were registered as retreatment cases. Of these, 16 (11%) relapse, 13 (9%) return after defaulted (RAD), 23 (16%) failure and 95 (64%) were categorized as ‘other’ among which 61 (64.9%) had sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) and 34 (35.1%) had extra PTB (EPTB). Retreatment case is more likely to occur in HIV positive 48 (59%) individuals. Regarding their treatment outcomes, treatment success rate (cure plus treatment completed) of 65 (63.7%) was obtained. Whereas 13 (12.8%) registered as died, 10 (9.8%) as failure, 9 (8.8%) as defaulters and 5 (4.9%) as transferred out cases to other health facility. HIV positive individuals are more likely (54%) to have poor treatment outcomes.
Conclusion: The prevalence of TB retreatment cases obtained in this study was higher as compared to similar studies. Similarly, their treatment success rate (TSR) was lower as compared to the national figure. Therefore, more attention should be given to the prevention and treatment of TB retreatment cases to avoid social and economic burden of tuberculosis in Ethiopia.