Background: This was the first study which has been conducted on chronic renal failure children under 15 years old in Jenin District to know the underlying etiology of the disease. The study was conducted on all patients who are treated by medications or hemodialysis in the dialysis unit of The Martyr Dr. Khalil Sulaiman Hospital in Jenin city which is the only dialysis unit in Jenin District where all the patients in Jenin District are treated. The study was conducted in the period 1/8/2005 to 1/8/2006.
Materials and methods: The subjects were nine patients. The information was taken from files of the patients in the kidney unit. The diagnosis was based on family history, medical history, laboratory tests, X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound and renal biopsies.
Results: The results showed that the causes of chronic renal failure were primary hyperoxaluria (66.7%) and congenital abnormalities of the kidney (33.3%).
Conclusion: It is obvious from the results that the most common cause of CRF in children under 15 years old in Jenin District was primary hyperoxaluria which is an inherited disorder. These results differ from what is found in many countries around the world including Arab and Islamic countries where the most common causes of chronic renal failure in children are urological abnormalities and malformations (congenital anomalies) and not primary hyperoxaluria. The primary inherited nephropathy in Jenin District was primary hyperoxaluria with a percentage much higher than that found in many countries around the world. This seems to be due to the very high prevalence of parental consanguinity (especially among cousins) in some families in Jenin District, a practice that is repeated through generations.