Background: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of insulin-secreting islet cells of the pancreas by several islet cell-specific autoantibodies that can be detected many months or years before the onset of diabetes. The presence of these antibodies can be attributed largely to environmental agents and also genetic factors. Knowing the frequency of these autoantibodies in a population is an important step for a better understanding, diagnosis and management of Type 1 diabetes. The aim of the research was to screen and identify those at greatest risk of diabetes (relatives of diabetic patients) early in life, as a precautionary step with the hope to deliver care in order to avoid the disease and its complications later in life.
Method: The study was conducted on eighty-eight apparently healthy young and adolescent first-degree relatives of diabetic patients in Jos metropolis. Blood samples were collected, centrifuged and serum was aseptically separated within two hours. A commercial ELISA test kit - Medizym® anti-IA2 was used to determine the presence of anti-IA-2 autoantibodies in serum obtained from participants enrolled in the study.
Results: The results obtained showed twelve participants of both sexes (13.64%) having positive titers of the IA-2 antibodies which were statistically significant.
Conclusion: From the results, we conclude that with significant titers of the IA-2 antibodies among young adolescents, there is the likelihood of them developing diabetes later in life depending on the period of exposure to the factors responsible for triggering the autoimmune process. The results are hereby discussed and recommendations made.
Published Date: 2019-08-28; Received Date: 2019-06-04