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CD33 also known as Siglec-3 is endogenously expressed in stem cells and is a marker for the myeloid lineage of cells. Increased expression of CD33 thus allows it to bind to any Sialic Acids (SIAs). These acids are binding sites for pathogens and toxins. By binding to these acids, CD33 can prevent invasion of hosts by these pathogens. Down-regulation of CD33, increase the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by monocytes that increases reactive oxygen species that are involved in diseases like diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular diseases asthma, and in various cancers.
The up-regulation of CD33 using Metadichol® was studied using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from human umbilical cord were used which were grown in p-35 dishes until confluent and treatment was carried out with different concentrations. One dish was untreated and considered as control. The treated and untreated cells were analyzed using Flow Cytometry. The cells treated at 100 pg of Metadichol® has shown the highest increase (>400 fold) in CD33++ expression (48.77%) compared to untreated control (0.11%).