Diverse aspects of environmental stress on human health in Brazil were discussed aims to answer questions as: which regions and socioeconomic sectors are most vulnerable to those effects? Which the future of the human health quality in the country? Systematically data on sanitation, demographic indicators and expansion of tropical diseases (TD) in the five geographical areas of the Brazil were analyzed for the period 1980–2012, considering combined factors as destruction of forests, water pollution, population, absence of sanitation and tropical water-related diseases. Data for this review were identified by searches in databases and reports Brazilian government officials and international agencies. Filters were used for select information. The analyses confirm that there is a cause-effect relation between man and environment, being that environmental stress answers to impacts with specific effects on human health, including climate changes and TD epidemics, both associated to socioeconomic conditions.