Background: Pregnancy is a dynamic physiological state evidenced by several transient changes which even affects the oral cavity. Present study was conducted with an aim to assess the changing patterns of gingivitis and periodontitis in different trimesters of pregnancy amongst pregnant and non pregnant women attending the outpatient Department of Government Hospitals in Delhi, India.
Methodology: A total sample size of 800 pregnant and 800 non-pregnant women attending the O.P.D of 4 Government Hospitals of Delhi was obtained through Stratified Cluster Sampling Technique. A structured pretested assessment form was used to assess the gingival, periodontal and oral hygiene status using Gingival Index (GI), Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LOA) and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS v16.0 software package.
Results: Mean GI scores was significantly high for pregnant women than non pregnant women (1.57 ± 0.51, 1.48 ± 0.35 respectively, p<0.001) and was more in 2nd trimester (1.73 ± 0.42) and 3rd trimester (1.75 ± 0.45) as compared to 1st trimester of pregnancy (1.25 ± 0.48) (p=0.001). Maximum CPI code 3 was seen in 14.6% of pregnant subjects and 8.1% of non pregnant subjects (p-0.001). Mean OHI-S score for pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was 2.89 ± 0 and 2.60 ± 1.07 respectively (p=0.002).
Oral Hygiene status also worsened with increase in trimester of pregnancy, (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Prevalence of the Gingival and Periodontal disease was significantly high among pregnant women and worsened with increasing gestation age Hence it is necessary to reinforce knowledge about significance of oral health in pregnant women by means of appropriate preventive and educational programs.
Published Date: 2020-06-10; Received Date: 2020-05-25