The consequences of signing the COP21 Agreement must now be spelt out not only for the rapidly developing economies in Asia, producing lots of greenhouse gases, but also for the poor nations in Africa, having much less CO2 emissions. Yet, the African governments have bound themselves to respect a 40% reduction by 2030 in CO2:s. Is this major objective in the effort to halt climate change implementable? Anthropogenic greenhouse gases are generated mainly by the consumption of energy, and this is vital to economic progress in Africa. Perhaps African countries could move to renewables in the short period of 10-14 years, but this would require an enormous amount of funds from advanced nations, if at all feasible. The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection will become ever stronger, as Africa struggles with underdevelopment and draughts and deforestation as well as desertification. Each country has its special situation, depending on the link between GDP-CO2 on the one hand and the actual energy mix in place today.